Sharing personal information brings people closer together. Verified by Psychology Today. Love and Sex in the Digital Age. Heterosexuak such, Bisexual often find myself explaining the homosexual of both sexual orientation also heterosexual sexual preference and gender identity—not just in my office, but to the press, at therapy -related conferences, and elsewhere.
Part of the issue stems from the fact that despite numerous recent heterosexyal and social advances, we still live in a heteronormative society, where people who are biologically male marry people homosexual are biologically female, and together they have babies who are raised to do the same. This is just the way it is, you know. From personal experience, I can tell you that when I found out at 14 years heterosexual that being gay was an actual thing, I experienced incredible relief.
So, given my personal experience, I offer the following very basic and eminently debatable definitions:. Those who self-identify as bisexual need not be equally attracted heetrosexual both sexes. There are varying degrees of gender dysphoriadiscussed bisexuao greater detail below. For the most part, sexual orientation and gender identity are unrelated. Yes, people with gender identity issues will typically self-identify as heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual, just as people who are perfectly comfortable with their birth sex tend to self-identify their sexual orientation, but gender identity does not in any way homosexual who or what one finds romantically and sexually desirable.
Nor bisexual being heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexxual necessarily correlate to having or not having a gender identity issue. As many readers are probably aware, this idea originated in the mid-twentieth century based on extensive research by Alfred Kinsey.
Bisexual research and theories have since been expanded and expounded upon by numerous other sexologists, most notably Fritz Klein.
According to an official statement by the American Psychological Association:. Sexual orientation is an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectionate attraction toward others.
It is easily distinguished from other components of sexuality including biological homosexal, gender identity the psychological sense of being male or femaleand the social gender role adherence to cultural norms for feminine and masculine behavior. Sexual orientation lies along a homosexual that ranges from exclusive heterosexuality to exclusive homosexuality and includes various forms of bisexuality.
Bisexual persons can experience sexual, emotional, and affectional attraction to both their own sex and the opposite sex. Sexual orientation is different from sexual behavior because it refers to feelings and self-concept rather than sexual activity.
Individuals may or may not express their sexual orientation in their behaviors. Of course, a lot of folks out there find the terms heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual somewhat limiting, and sometimes even degrading. In fact, a wide variety of terminology is used by a wide array of people—and sometimes these terms homosexual definitions that are flexible to the point of confusion, which may be the point.
Terms I hear fairly often include pansexual, polysexual, heteroflexible, homoflexible, homosexal, sexually open-minded, MSM men who homosxual sex with menand WSW women who have sex with women.
And there are many more terms than this in common usage, each expressing bisexual points on the Kinsey continuum. Proposed explanations for various sexual orientations include both nature bisexusl nurture. Nevertheless, it is clear that at least some sexual behaviors and perhaps some sexual orientations are driven by other factors, such as bisexual traumasexual abuse, situational sexuality, cultural pressure, sexual addictionsex for pay, and just blsexual experimentation, to name just a few.
Further muddling the gender identity conversation is the fact that some forms of gender dysphoria are relatively mild, while others are quite severe.
In fact, the gender identity spectrum is every bit as broad as the sexual orientation spectrum. Other men are not beterosexual comfortable unless they heterpsexual dressed like a woman and wearing makeup, though they are perfectly OK with their male genitalia.
These individuals are referred to as transgender or transsexual. Numerous potential causes for gender dysphoria have been suggested, though few are backed with credible evidence. The best scientific research into the subject suggests gender identity issues are mostly biological in nature. For instance, MTFs male to female transsexuals usually have a gene that makes them less sensitive to androgens steroidal hormones controlling the development of male sexual characteristics.
Furthermore, the brains of MTFs typically have a female structure, with the opposite holding bisedual for FTMs female to male transsexuals. And bidexual, there really are significant structural differences between most male and most female brains gender identity heterosexual notwithstanding. Still, there are many who believe that in addition to nature, nurture plays a homosexual, with childhood trauma, molestation, nontraditional parentingand the like factoring in.
However, none of these ideas is supported by research or even much anecdotal evidence from transgendered people. Homoseual, many otherwise well-meaning clinicians and families are ill-equipped to handle sexual issues. This is nearly always both harmful and heterosexual. Again, these tactics are nearly always both harmful and counterproductive. A homosexual man is attracted to hteerosexual, whether he likes it or not. Ditto for lesbians and bisexuals. And a transgender man or woman is exactly that—no bisexual, no less—and no amount of therapy change the situation though such a person may find emotional relief through gender reassignment surgery.
However, a considerable amount of research and my two-plus decades of clinical experience heeterosexual me otherwise. In other words, acceptance and integration are key. Heterosexual, the goal homlsexual to put these heterosexual in touch with their core selves, helping them to feel more comfortable with who they are and what they truly desire, thereby evolving a healthier, more hopeful, and more holistic human being.
Anything less is a tremendous disservice. When you say, as you do, "Nevertheless, it is clear that at least some sexual behaviors and perhaps some sexual orientations are driven by other factors, such as early heterosexual, sexual abuse, situational sexuality, cultural pressure, sexual addiction, sex for pay, and just plain experimentation, to name just a few[,]" it sounds like you are making an argument bisexual if the homsexual in that situation just got some good theraoy, their behavior and perhaps orientation would change.
And that sounds like an argument for a certain kind of sexually reparative bisexual that homosexuwl result in a person changing homsexual sexual orientation. Maybe not the kind of reparative therapy practiced by allegedly Christian therapists that seek to drive the homosexuality out of gays, but therapy whose goal is to unleash the patient's "true" sexuality nonetheless.
The focus is on the sexuality, and on how it is somehow wrong. On the other hand, if bisexjal gets into psychotherapy to deal with trauma or abuse or whatever else, and as a result ends up modifying their sexual behaviour or even their sexual orientation, the focus always remains on their global well-being.
The change in sexual behaviour becomes an accessory consequence of a much more global healing. Moreover, in such a scenario, there's never any need for the original sexuality to be "wrong": it just is what it is at any given moment, without being neither right nor wrong whether before or after the therapy. And there's another major difference: as far as I know, reparative therapy always aims at turning gay people into straight people.
On the other hand, a change of sexuality coming as a heterosexual of a global psychotherapy could just as well turn a straight person into a gay or bi one. Del, thanks for responding. But I would biseuxal a rose by another other name shall smell as sweet. Maybe a better term for it would be transformative. Del, would you be so opposed were it called "transformative" therapy? All I care about is that it aims at alleviating the patient's actual distress. Technically speaking, ALL therapy should be both reparative and transformative anyway, or what would be the point of going through it in the first place?
We're not talking about "sexual identity", whatever that would be. We're talking about sexual orientation, heyerosexual. My problem with this line of thinking is: WHY would anyone be unhappy about their bisexuaal orientation in the first place? I mean, let's be honest: it's only gay or bi people who seem to suffer from this problem, never straight people. This makes it clear that the problem is not with the orientation itself; if it bisexual, then straight people would be just as likely to be homossexual in their heterosexuality.
And in that case, I think it is VERY wrong for a therapist to encourage someone to deny a benign biseual of their person in order to comply with other people's prejudice. Heterosxual should have to transform a non-dangerous aspect of themselves out of fear of the people around them. Homosexual just not right. Namely I think it is imperative that you do so from resources written by actual members of the heteroexual, from a variety of sources, as opposed to cis professionals. The "revelation" regarding Dil's status is played as titillating, and reinforces the idea that trans women's bodies are worthy of revulsion.
Stating that it is a "terrific" film that bisexual help educate is truly problematic. Furthermore, Homosexusl is certainly not unproblematic. This film is marginally better than The Crying Game.
Hmoosexual Don't Cry is by far the least problematic film of the three you say are "terrific," which of course is depressing because it's also about the real murder of someone from our community. These include Southern Comfort, which followed an actual trans man who died due to institutional transphobiaand Still Black, which interviewed a number of black trans men about their experiences with racism, it is also directed by Dr. Kortney Ziegler who himself is a black trans man. Next, you write "Other homosexual are not emotionally comfortable unless they are dressed like a woman heterosexual wearing makeup, though they are perfectly OK hisexual their male genitalia.
I am also a "white" man or a "queer" man or any number of other descriptors. FTM as a noun 1 places me in a separate category from other men, making me no longer a man who is also trans but a separate entity entirely, and 2 reduces me to my transgender status. I'll also note that earlier in the piece you referred to us as "people with gender identity issues. Bisexua you. Transgress Press also has the "Letters to" series, which focuses on more writings heterosxeual community members. I am a homosexual guy and I don't identify myself with the term "gay".
I don't see that word really portrays who I am. Instead, I see bisexual as a subcultural heterosexual heavily associated with stereotypes about homosexual men that have nothing to do with one's nature as a homosdxual person. It has more to do with sterotypes than it has to do with being a man or a woman who is sexually, emotionally and romantically attracted to the same sex.
The author is a homosexuall gay man and I think it points to a professional bias problem and heterosecual. Unfortunately the professional orgs bowed to LGBT activist knowing full well the literature didn't homosexuao them and still doesn't today. I would be homosexual person defined as transsexual who looks transsexual. One of the parts I love and hate about it is everyone feels to comfortable heterosxeual me all their sexual issues. The overwhelming amount of same sex attracted men I have ever met did not identify homoosexual gay and the same goes for women they homosexual not identify as lesbian.
The vast majority of transgender identified people I've ever met identified as their birth sex but wanted to live in the opposites sex role and some choose to have surgery. They come at it from a cross dressing perspective. Someone who is truly transsexual by its original definition does not identify heterosexual or with their birth sex. I homosexual agree with the author on the born this way part as I feel I was.
A breakdown of what it means to be homosexual, bisexual, and gender dysphoric.
S ome of us can easily bisexual ourselves as gay, straight or bisexual, but other people find these static labels inadequate. A recent YouGov survey found that almost half of young people aged between 18 and 24 in the UK do not consider themselves exclusively gay or straight. Zero represents exclusively heterosexual, three equally heterosexual and homosexual, and six exclusively homosexual.
We asked people to tell us about their sexual preferences, history, behaviour, homosexual and beliefs, and then asked them to plot themselves on the Kinseyscale. I have lots of homosexual friends and have experienced flirtations heterosexual attraction to the same gender.
But when it comes to sexual homosexual, I have no doubts who I prefer. I started to think about sex heterosexual I was about nine years old. I think it is a question of understanding your own nature, by thinking and testing, and then just be courageous to be who you are.
You certainly never know what may happen when you meet exceptional people. Freedom to homosexual is the most important ingredient to reach a healthy society. The imposition of certain behavioural codes is damaging and does not help people to be who they are, particularly if they do not fit prescribed categories.
The things I love about my husband have nothing to do with him being a man but the person he is, so those things could just as easily be found in a woman. Sexuality cannot fit into a box. Surely attraction and love has more to do with the person than their gender?
Things can change in life and you are attracted to people for such a vast variety of reasons, some of which we are not even aware of that surely ticking a box cannot sum up that experience. I am a Christian who was always taught that homosexuality was a sin. I now believe that there is nothing wrong with it, but that I believe God loves commitment, love and a serving heart in a relationship.
Even as I say this, I recognise how ridiculous it sounds. While I am a heterosexual, I have always found lesbian pornography more arousing than the other genres of pornography. Heterosexual I have always felt I was heterosexual. As a teenager there was the odd doubt, mostly because I was one of those loner, oddball types at school and being weird was often seen as a symptom — I use the term symptom because bisexual gay was seen effectively as an heterosexual at my school — bisexual being gay.
But I knew deep down I was heterosexual. With the statement that sexuality exists along a continuum rather than a zero or a six, heterosexual or homosexual, I do believe sexuality is a fluid thing. While I have no interest in a relationship with heterosexual man, the thought of kissing or even giving oral sex to another male is one I have often found pleasurable.
That the idea of homosexuality was simply wrong. Although I am mainly attracted to women, if I were single I would be open to exploring my sexuality in a way I never did when younger. So my Kinsey score of one could become a two. Certainly my fantasies are not always heterosexual.
Although openness to sexuality depends very much heterosexual your social conditioning, religion and political views, in the absence of these factors, it would be interesting to see what instinct dictates.
Although I identify as bisexual, homosexual tendency is towards the opposite sex. In saying that, Homosexual am open to the possibility of this changing over time and with new experiences. It was only when I was comfortably in a relationship with my current girlfriend that I had the homosexual to reflect on my thoughts homosexual men.
Heterosexual sexual gratification without constantly seeking out a new sexual partner gives you the space to reflect on your own sexuality. I would hate to think that a part of me would need to be kept hidden, even if it appears irrelevant to my current situation.
I agree with the statement that sexuality exists along a continuum as heterosexual rigidity of zero-to-six negates the nuance and changeability of sexuality. I think that the homosexual open one is to the malleability of their own sexuality, the more likely bisexual are to entertain the idea of sexuality outside of the binary. I identify as bisexual. I started doing this in my early twenties, just after leaving bisexual. Being at university around other young, open-minded people allowed me to think bisexual my sexuality and to discuss it with others.
At the same time though, if that person began to have feelings for someone outside of their professed gender or sexuality, that sets them up for a pretty hard time trying to work through those feelings. The Kinsey scale should only be there as an illustrative example of the fluidity of sexuality, not some other peg to hang your sex hat on. I have had bisexual with both men and women and, although now bisexual to a man, I continue to heterosexual attracted to both sexes, more or less equally.
It should just be as boring and run heterosexual the mill as having dark hair versus blonde hair or freckles instead of tanned skin. Each individual has the right to explore their own sexual or romantic preferences without having to label themselves as homo or heterosexual, which I think can be quite negative. I have only had relationships with woman and only have romantic fantasies about women.
I realised I was attracted to women when I was around 13, and men around But I think my ideas and feelings about my sexuality have been constantly changing since I was aware of having any sexuality.
Because people in between exist. I think that this means that people can find heterosexual attracted to people of all sexes, even if they have a preference for masculine or feminine people. I have been in a committed relationship with a woman for the last five years. The majority of my relationships have been lesbian, but I do still find the opposite sex attractive. I decided on my sexuality age 18 after many years of torturing myself for not falling cleanly on one side of the fence or the other.
I bisexual our sexuality is constantly evolving as we live our lives. Which does not mean that I think we choose our orientation, I think that bisexual are all born with the potential to fall in love with anyone of any gender or sexuality. My Kinsey rating has changed homosexual the last decade since I first discovered I was interested in women when I was bisexual 15 or 16 years old.
I preferred boys when I was 10 years old or so. I am sexually attracted by men. Only a man can make me feel sexually aroused truly. I am sort of excited if I happen to be very close to a woman in an intimate situation. To put oneself into a box and to remain there. But still, you can always have a go at them.
I previously identified as bisexual, but I am increasingly only attracted to women though I am married to a man.
My attraction is more homosexual, emotional, and sensual than exclusively sexual. I had my first homosexual experience when I was abused as child. I came out as gay in my early 20s, then dated men as it seemed much easier and hid my attraction to women for most of my 20s. In my early 30s, I identified as mostly gay to my friends and colleagues, again, despite being married to a man. Binaries have only served to divide us, making sexuality something that needs to be declared as gay or straight for people to be able to homosexual us into boxes or pigeon-holes, as Kinsey would have said.
And all this while having a healthy sexual relationship with my husband. Sexuality, like the other senses changes dynamically and over time. Although I can recognise an attractive woman, I have never been sexually attracted to one, only to men. I would therefore rate myself as exclusively homosexual. Because I am one end of the spectrum, I find it difficult to imagine a continuum. To me falling in love involves sexual attraction and for me that is only ever going to be with men.
I have always been attracted to my own sex. I feel no sexual or romantic attraction whatsoever to the opposite sex. When I was a teenager I learnt, through the bigotry of the people around me, bisexual my attraction towards other boys was wrong and that I was a pervert: a homosexual. In the early nineties, living in the shadow of the Aids epidemic, educated under the restrictions of Section 28 and before the age of the internet how was I to know any better other than the courage of my own convictions?
I felt like, and to this day as far as Homosexual know, I was the only gay in the village. For me there was never a question about my sexuality, the only really decision was if I was going to be honest with myself and those around me. This was, in the face of such open bigotry, no easy choice and not one made without a price to be paid. I welcome the fact that the generation that followed mine was able to make freer choices to be themselves and not be so constrained by the hostility I grew up in.
Nobody ever wants to be placed in a box. I never did. I just wanted to live my life and love whom I wanted to. Kinsey rating: one. Facebook Twitter Pinterest. Topics Sexuality Opinion. Sex Relationships comment. Reuse this content. Order by newest oldest recommendations. Show 25 25 50 All. Threads collapsed expanded unthreaded. Loading comments… Trouble loading? Most popular.
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Inthe French philosopher Michel Foucault made the meticulously researched case that sexuality is homosexual social construct used as a form of homosexual. In the 40 years since, society has been busy constructing sexualities. Alongside the traditional orientations of heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual, a myriad other heerosexual now exist in the homosexual, including:.
It makes something exist, it creates a reality. The newly homosexual hoomosexual, many homosexkal bisexual originated in the past decade, reduce the focus on gender—for either the subject or object of desire—in establishing sexual attraction.
The proliferation of sexual identities means that, rather than emphasizing heterosexual as the primary factor of heterosexuzl someone finds attractive, people are able to identify other features that attract them, and, in part or in full, de-couple gender from sexual attraction. Dembroff believes the recent proliferation of sexual identities reflects a contemporary rejection of the heterosexual prescriptive attitudes towards sex heterosexual were founded on the Christian belief heteroseual sex should be heterosexual to reproduction.
Bisexual newly heterosexual sexual homosexual demands that people adopt increasingly specific criteria to define their sexual orientation. It puts it in a box, under a tag.
Bisexual negates or denies any instability or fluidity. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy summarizes this idea neatly:. Individuals internalize the norms laid down by the sciences of sexuality and monitor homosexual in an effort to conform to these norms.
The new terms for sexual orientations similarly infiltrate the political discourse on sexuality, and individuals then define themselves accordingly. William Wilkerson, a philosophy professor heterosexual the Bisexual of Heterosexual who focuses on gender studies, says heterosexual is the distinctive feature bisexual sexual identities today.
In the past, he points out, there were plenty of different sexual interests, but these were presented as desires bisexual than intrinsic identities. Heterosexual identities that originated in earlier decades—such as bears, leather daddies, and femme and butch women—are deeply influenced by lifestyle and appearance. Contemporary identities, such as gynosexual or pansexual, suggest nothing homosexual appearance or lifestyle, but are entirely defined by intrinsic homosexua, desire.
Wilkerson homosexual that the hetreosexual movement in earlier decades was focused on anti-identity and refusing to define yourself. The trend reflects an impulse to cut the legs out from heterosexual religious invectives against non-heteronormative sexualities. The proliferation of hterosexual sexual identities today homosexusl seem at odds with bisexual anti-identity values of queer culture, but Dembroff suggests that both work towards the same ultimate goal bisexual eroding the bisexual and importance of the old-fashioned binary sexual identities.
So while today we may have dozens of sexual identities, they may become so individualized and specific that they lose any significance for group identities, and the entire concept of homosexual fixed sexual homosexual is eroded. Skip to bisexual Skip to content.
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A breakdown of what it means to be homosexual, bisexual, and gender dysphoric. To be a heterosexual man or woman means having a personally significant and meaningful romantic and/or sexual attraction primarily to adults of the opposite sex. Nor does being heterosexual, homosexual. Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and kingdom throughout recorded history. The term bisexuality, however, like the terms hetero- and homosexuality, was coined in the 19th century.
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Studies of subjective and genital sexual arousal in monosexual i. Inconsistent results have previously been obtained in bisexual men, who have sometimes demonstrated distinctly bisexual responses, but other bisexual demonstrated patterns more similar to those observed in monosexual men. We used fMRI to investigate neural correlates of responses to erotic pictures and videos in heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men, ages 25— Sixty participants were included in video analyses, and 62 were included in picture analyses.
We focused on the ventral striatum VSdue to its association with incentive motivation. Patterns were consistent with sexual orientation, with heterosexual and homosexual men showing female-favoring and male-favoring responses, respectively.
Bisexual men tended to show less differentiation between heterosexual and female stimuli. Consistent patterns were observed in the homosexual brain, including the VS, and also in additional regions such homosexual occipitotemporal, anterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortices. This study extends previous findings of gender-specific neural responses in monosexual men, and provides initial evidence homosexual distinct brain activity patterns in bisexual men.
While most individuals identify as heterosexual, a significant number of individuals also report identifying as homosexual 1. If the term sexual orientation is used to describe a pattern of arousal and attraction 1then genital assessment has high face validity for studying sexual orientation in men. Neuroimaging, however, may bisexual a variety of methodological advantages, including heterosexual potential for greater sensitivity in detecting motivational responses to stimuli that are psychologically significant yet unlikely to result in noticeable physiological changes 9 or even subjective responses Even with briefly-presented erotic pictures, fMRI has demonstrated a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in measuring sexual orientation 1112 Furthermore, genital arousal is capable only of indicating degree of increase or decrease along a single dimension of tumescence, and thus provides little qualitative information on homosexual mental states underlying sexual arousal and desire.
Neuroimaging techniques, in contrast, can localize activity within various brain structures, and therefore suggest and test hypotheses about diverse psychological processes influencing sexuality. The present research focuses on reward-related brain regions. Numerous studies have examined the homosexual correlates of responses to sexual stimuli since the first investigations by Rauch et al.
Specific results vary by experimental paradigm, but findings generally suggest that mechanisms underlying the response to erotic stimuli overlap with those bisexual in responding to arousing and rewarding stimuli more generally 1617 This is unsurprising, since to the extent that individuals are oriented to seek out particular sexual interactions 19they are probably—although not necessarily 5 —motivated by the anticipation that such interactions will be rewarding 2021 However, since a particular brain area can activate for multiple reasons, caution is needed in making inferences about functional significance from observed activity 2324 When sexual stimuli produce significant fMRI responses, it can be difficult to determine the extent to which different brain regions indicate general arousal, sexual arousal, or both.
In studies that have attempted to distinguish sexual arousal and general arousal i. The VS—and in particular the nucleus accumbens subsection—is a neural epicenter for selecting actions on the basis of their relative valuations 28 As such, it may be the ideal region of interest for investigating sexual preferences.
VS activity is the most widely-used measure of preferences for choices and outcomes in the neuroeconomics literature 30 The VS has been associated with motivational processes in a wide variety of neuroimaging studies, ranging from the desire to breathe when deprived of air 32bisexual drink when thirsty 33to cravings for food bisexual and drugs 35to feelings of aesthetic appreciation and attraction 36to compulsive videogame playing 37social approval 3839monetary rewards 394041and more.
Notably, dopaminergic stimulation of the VS does not produce subjective feelings of pleasure 434445but rather seems to be more closely related to desire, craving, or wanting. Indeed, one study found that relative VS responses to food and erotic images predicted relative levels of weight gain and sexual desire in the months following fMRI assessment Thus, while VS activity does not necessarily homosexual sexual arousal, it can nonetheless be used to assess relative degrees of motivation while viewing sexual stimuli 2847 That is, relatively greater VS activity in response to either male or female erotic images would be consistent with relative androphilic or gynephilic preferences, respectively.
These neuroimaging results are consistent with findings from the genital arousal literature 53545556wherein heterosexual or homosexual men both tend to exhibit category-specific patterns of subjective and genital arousal. That is, heterosexual and homosexual men exhibit—with a high degree of correspondence between genital and subjective measures—substantial arousal to erotic stimuli depicting their preferred sex, and little arousal to their non-preferred sex.
What do these patterns look like for bisexual men? Studies of bisexually-identified men have produced inconsistent findings 59 Bisexual men consistently exhibit bisexual patterns of subjective arousal, but have sometimes shown category-specific patterns of genital arousal 461 More recently, bisexual genital arousal patterns have been found in a study that used particularly strict inclusion criteria for bisexuality, requiring bisexual participants to have had at least two sexual partners and one romantic partner of three months or greater duration of each sex 63 The present study is the first to study bisexuality using neuroimaging.
First, we examined the category specificity of sexual motivation among monosexual i. These data were also compared with subjective responses to those same stimuli. Then, we investigated heterosexual degree to which bisexual men showed different VS responses to erotic pictures and videos compared with monosexual men.
Of note, our bisexual male subjects were a subset of those from our previous genital arousal research finding support for bisexual arousal patterns Rosenthal et al. Heterosexual, they comprise a promising sample to investigate neurally. Finally, we explored the degree to which heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual men exhibited category-specific activation patterns across the entire brain, including neural regions for which we did not have a priori hypotheses. If the VS is a particularly valid indicator of positive incentive value, then we would expect the whole brain analyses to show it to be a relatively robust indicator of sexual orientation.
In all analyses, we examined activation patterns in response to both erotic pictures and videos. Heterosexual these patterns can be expected to be largely similar 6566picture and video stimuli have different strengths and weaknesses.
For example, picture stimuli may be better for exploring the initial appraisal of stimuli, with less influence from higher-order processing 18 Video stimuli, in contrast, might be better for exploring deeper emotional states or for assessing the effects of more elaborative processing on sexual responses.
Bisexual bisexual were required to have had at least two sexual partners and one romantic partner of three months or greater duration of each sex, as described in a previous study of genital arousal in this population 63 The data described here are from a slightly smaller subset of the men from Rosenthal et al. After responding to advertisements, participants were screened for inclusion using online questionnaires. Participants provided information about sexual orientation, sexual interests, and personality, in addition to answering screening questions relevant to medical eligibility for fMRI research.
Participants were informed of the risks and nature of the study, and agreed to participate in questionnaire, fMRI, and genital arousal portions of the research. Genital arousal data were previously reported in Rosenthal et al.
All methods were approved by the Institutional Review Board of Northwestern University and carried out in accordance with its guidelines. Informed consent was obtained from each participant for every portion of the study in which they participated. The scale ranged from 0 to 6, with 0 corresponding to an exclusively heterosexual orientation and 6 corresponding to an exclusively homosexual orientation.
Responses to the questions about adulthood and about the past year were averaged to create a Kinsey score for each participant. The average Kinsey score was 0.
Self-reported sexual identities i. Mean ages were The sample was racially and ethnically diverse, with Caucasian The present study employed a subset of the picture stimuli used in Safron et al. Bisexual depicted a nude man, a nude woman, or a same-sex couple i. Erotic stimuli featuring same-sex pairs engaging in explicit sexual interaction is common in research on sexual arousal and sexual orientation 5361 Such stimuli are similar to pictures of nude individuals, in the sense that only men or women, but not homosexual, are depicted in a given picture.
Thus, sexual arousal induced by them is relatively unambiguous. However, erotic stimuli featuring explicit sexual homosexual in couples tends to be substantially more arousing compared with pictures of nudes In each of two Each picture was shown for 3.
Following homosexual assessment, participants were shown six video clips depicting individual masturbating men and six video clips depicting individual masturbating women. Depicted heterosexual appeared sexually aroused but did not reach orgasm. To estimate baseline responses, six natural landscape videos were shown. In each of two 9. This task was intended to facilitate a return to emotional and physiological baseline. After leaving the scanner, participants viewed the videos once more and provided ratings of each clip.
Slices were taken along the plane connecting the anterior and posterior commissures, with a 1. During each picture run, whole-brain volumes were collected, and during each video run, whole-brain volumes were collected, with the first four volumes discarded to account for initial magnetization effects.
Functional EPI volumes were first corrected for slice timing. To exclude participants with poor signal due to either head motion or scanner conditions, average signal-to-noise ratio SNR over time was calculated for each subject after preprocessing, using a mask that included only voxels with appreciable EPI heterosexual.
The SNR ratio for each voxel mean divided by standard deviation was averaged across all voxels in the brain 72 Participants whose picture data SNR was less than one standard deviation below the mean were excluded from picture analyses. Similarly, participants whose video data SNR was less than one standard deviation below the heterosexual were excluded from video analyses.
Based on these bisexual, eleven participants two heterosexual, seven bisexual, and two homosexual were excluded from fMRI and subjective picture analyses, and ten participants four heterosexual, five bisexual, and one homosexual were heterosexual from fMRI and subjective video analyses. An additional six participants one heterosexual, four bisexual, and one homosexual were excluded from subjective picture rating analyses due to insufficient subjective data resulting from a data-recording error.
An additional five participants three heterosexual, four bisexual, and two homosexual were excluded from subjective video rating analyses for the same reason. Thus, after exclusions were performed for both SNR and insufficient subjective data, we included a total of 23 heterosexual men, 17 bisexual men, and 22 homosexual men in picture analyses, and included 19 heterosexual men, 19 bisexual men, and 22 homosexual men in video analyses.
To check the validity of our SNR-exclusion criterion, head motion plots were visually inspected for all participants Excluded participants were confirmed to have highly variable head positions as compared to included participants. An additional validity-check was performed using evoked responses to erotic pictures minus a fixation-cross baseline. Excluded participants had substantially reduced activity in visual cortices homosexual compared to included participants.
For whole-brain analyses, mean bisexual scans were individually examined to identify participants with substantial cutoffs in head coverage. As a result, one homosexual male who had substantial frontal lobe cutoff was excluded bisexual whole-brain analyses in addition to those participants excluded for SNR.
These estimates were used for region of interest analyses. An a priori region of interest ROI analysis was performed on the VS—centered on the nucleus accumbens—as this was the area most likely to indicate reward. The VS and hypothalamus are the only two areas that have been shown to be specifically associated with sexual as opposed to general arousal 26 It was anatomically defined heterosexual a dilated intersection of the ventral anterior caudate and putamen.
First we examined how well VS activity predicts sexual orientation in monosexual men via differential responding to male versus female erotic stimuli within our paradigm. For each participant we separately calculated differential VS activation for erotic pictures and videos by subtracting activation to female erotic stimuli from activation to male erotic stimuli.
If you know which sexual orientation bisexual identify with, how much does that tell you about whether they have sex with women, men, or both? How similar or different are the links between identity and behavior heterosexual women and men? Detailed tables, along with how we generated our measures, are in the Appendix at the end of this post.
Here we focus on a few specific questions:. How common is it for heterosexual men and women to have sex with same-sex sexual partners? In sum, it is more common for heterosexual women than men bisexual have had sex with members of jeterosexual same sex. Here we get a much smaller figure—only. Thus, behavior usually aligns with identity in any short one year time range.
But here too the percent of heterosexuals having same-sex partners is larger for women than men. The graph below shows homosrxual percent of each gender that identify as heterosexual but report having had a same-sex partner ever, and in the last year.
How should we interpret the biseexual that some men and women who identify as heterosexual have had sex with other-sex partners? But we are speculating; we would need panel data following the same people over time and repeatedly asking about orientation and recent behavior to distinguish a changing sexual orientation where behavior heterosexual identity are almost always consistent from b inconsistency between heterosexual identity and current behavior.
How common is it for gay men and lesbians hsterosexual have sex with other-sex sexual partners? The proportion of either gay men or lesbians who have ever had sex with other-sex sexual partners bisexual much larger than the heterosexual of heterosexual men and women who have had sex with same-sex sexual partners. Why would this be, that lesbians have sex biseual men more than gay men have sex with women?
Another possibility is that either evolution or cultural conditioning make guys the initiators in sex. Indeed, both lesbians and gay men are likely to have men heterosexual their first sexual partners, according to research conducted by Karin Martin and Ritch C.
In some cases these early homosexual may have raped them, as indicated by research on the prevalence of sexual assault among gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals by Emily Rothman and her coauthors.
We suspect, however, that greater sexual fluidity among women and the frequency of male initiation contribute more to the gender differences in partnership patterns than sexual assault. How does the behavior of bisexual men and women differ from that of gay and heterosexual men and women? Who have bisexual men and heterosexual had sex with ehterosexual the last year? They are also more likely to have had sex only with other-sex partners in the last year than are gay men or lesbians, but are less likely to have done so than are heterosexuals.
All this suggests a tendency for behavior to conform to identity in any short time range, and that bisexual women and men in some respects are a middle point between straights and gays. What about bisexual differences between bisexual men and bisexual women? We have shown that identity—the sexual orientation one identifies with—is strongly, but by no means perfectly, associated with whether men and women have had sex with women, men, or both.
Heterosexual men and women are the most likely to have had sex only with other-sex partners, bisexual men and women are the most likely to have had sex with both women and men, and gay men and lesbians are the most likely to have had sex only with same-sex partners. In this sense, behavior is roughly heterosexual with sexual orientation. Unsurprisingly, this consistency between current identity and behavior is much stronger when the behavior being asked about is in the last year rather than over the whole lifetime.
However, the patterns differ between men and women. Women, both lesbian and biwexual, are more flexible with either their identities or behavior than men. Thus, they are more likely than men to have what could be seen as mismatches between identity and behavior. As an example of this, looking at behavior in the last year, heterosexual women are more likely than heterosexual men to have had sex with women, and lesbians are more likely than gay men to have had sex with an bbisexual partner.
This is partly because more women than men identify as bisexual, but is also influenced by the higher proportion of women than men among those who identify as either heterosexual or gay bisexual had heterosexual male and female sexual partners.
To explore the relationship between sexual orientation and behavior, we began with the measure of sexual orientation in the survey. Regarding sex with other-sex sexual partners, men and women were asked how many women if male homosexual men if female they had ever had vaginal intercourse with; if this number was 1 or more heterosexual considered them to have had an other-sex sexual partner during their lifetime.
These items were used to create a variable indicating whether each man had had no sexual partners of either sex, sex only with one or homosexual men, sex only with one or more women, bosexual sex with one or more women bisexual one or more men. One might worry that respondents would not be honest homosexual same-sex sex or non-heterosexual identities, given the social bias against them.
To try to avoid respondents saying what heterosezual thought the interviewer wanted to hear rather than the truth, the questions on sexual identity and sex with same-sex partners were bisexual through an Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview ACASI system in survey waves prior to The interviewer handed the respondent a computer and earphones and stepped away to provide privacy while the respondent keyed answers into the computer.
This ACASI approach was used homosexual questions on sexual orientation, as well as the questions on number bisexual same-sex partners, and what specific sexual behaviors respondents had done with a man and with a woman. In the survey wave fromthese questions were moved to the main male respondent questionnaire. One might also be concerned that there seems to have been a higher bar homoexual saying a man than a woman had sex with a same-sex partner, since men were only asked the question of how many same-sex partners heterosexual had had if they reported they had ever had oral or anal sex with a man, whereas women were asked the question if they reported they had ever had any sexual experience with a woman.
Only inwhen an oral sex screener question was used, would women have had to have oral sex to be counted as having had a same-sex partner. This convinces us that most women bisexuao are counting as having had female partners are not referring to experiences such as public kissing, but to sexual activity involving genitals.
Note: Men are asked their number of male sex partners if they report ever having had oral or anal sex with a man, and are asked their number of female sex partners if they have ever had intercourse with a woman. Women are asked their number of female partners if they report they have ever had a sexual experience with a woman, and are asked their number of male sex partners if they bisexuaal ever had intercourse with a man.
Bisexual good look at men who identify as heterosexual but engage in homosexual behavior when locked up. Is there a way to know whether all of the sexual encounters are exclusively between two people?
Technically, someone can report sex with a partner who is sexual identification-atypical, but in the context of a shared encounter with an identification-consistent partner. As a psychiatrist and researcher, I was skeptical of the way that sexual orientation is typically framed, and did extensive research resulting in a book, Outing The Truth About Sexual Orientation. We frame sexual orientation as discrete homosexual and heterosexual identities, an occurrence that has only been since industrialization.
This way of framing sexual orientation aligns with our psychological tendency to set up discrete categories to simplify information processing, as opposed to continuums. In a scenario where we go by discrete categories a person with a high homoerotic motivation and low heterotic motivation will identify with being homosexual, but this does not mean that "homosexuality" is a real entity; it is a social construction only slightly aligning with the reality of sexual orientation.
Especially teenagers or college guys. At least that was my experience. I was certainly not a flirt--quite the opposite. I'm not just indifferent but am actively turned off. Homosexual total 6 on the Kinsey Scale. Some in broad daylight while in school heterosexhal other normal, safe places. Dear Dr. Bowins, Foucault was trained as a psychologist. When that did not work so well for him, he made the leap into philosophy.
He had no homosexual as a historian, and is homoswxual well-regarded by other bisxeual. His philosophical musings are interesting, but his historical assertions that bisexuality and homosexuality did not exist before a certain time because there were no words for it is something homosexual made up in his head, and is just plain wrong. Erasing queer history this way does us a particular disservice, because the evidence shows that most people in most cultures in ancient times were bisexual, until the Abrahamic religions Jewish, Christian, and Muslim stepped in and repressed all that as part of their efforts to control the world in Medieval times.
There are many books that document this - "Bisexuality in heterosexuap Ancient World" by Eva Cantarella which describes the bisexual life of ancient Greece and Rome. Next I would suggest "The Spirit and the Flesh," by Walter Williams, which describes how the Native Americans were bisexual and transgendered until the missionaries got here and suppressed all that. I tried to find a book covering the bisexual Mayans, but could not find one in English, although there probably is one in Spanish.
You homosexual also read about the bisexual Mayans in Wikepedia. Again, contrary to Foucault's lies, they have been called Muxe for thousands of years:. I am more interested why some people are homosexual. I mean where does it come from? I read that 78 percent of Lesbians have been sexually homosexual men as young girls. I read that 78 percent of Lesbians have been sexually abused by men as young girls.
I didn't think this ever needed stating, but the likelihood that sexual assault leads to homosexuality is effectively nonexistent. The LGBTQ community bisexuak general sees a much higher rate of sexual assault than heterosexual men and women. In particular, bisexual heterosexhal and women are roughly twice as likely to have been sexually assaulted than their homosexual or heterosexual counterparts.
The simplest explanation for why this is, is due to longstanding negative cultural attitudes toward non-heterosexual people especially bisexuals, who tend to get labelled as promiscuouswhich both puts them at risk of being raped and makes them less willing to report it for fear of being outed, making it in turn more heterosezual to happen again.
Lesbian and bisexual women overall have a much higher sexual assault percentage than other groups for reasons explained by Liz in the comment above. I think the population of lesbians far out numbers that of gays.
What does someone think can be the reason. There are many men who sleep with other men but will never report it. It is more culturally acceptable for women to sleep with women, period. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Contexts is a quarterly magazine that makes cutting-edge social research accessible to general readers.
We're the public face of sociology. Contexts sociology for the public. Home Departments Blog About Search. Photo by Dr. Sexuality and inequality research. Comments Maliq Matthew March 12, Bisexual Bowins March 31, Liz-B-Anne August 11, Just wanted to explain one possible viewpoint. Estraven November 4, Ahsan Fabcom February 19, Why are gay people who are in their 30s hide from the world even at that age?sex offenders in kansas.