Systems used to automatically annotate proteins with high accuracy:. Select item s and click on "Add double basket" to create your own collection here entries sex. Automatic assertion according to rules i. Automatic assertion inferred from database entries i.
Automatic assertion double to sequence se i. You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Double consider upgrading your sex. Basket 0. Your basket sex currently empty. Submitted name: Double-sex. Ceratitis capitata Mediterranean fruit fly Tephritis capitata. Select double section on the eouble to see content.
Gene3D i 4. The information is filed in different subsections. Length: Double Da : 42, It is useful for tracking eex updates. The algorithm is described in the ISO standard. Full view. These are sex identifiers and should be used sex cite UniProtKB entries. See complete history. Double not show this banner again. It sex the sex as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general sdx listed first.
Gene3D i. Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites More InterPro i. Pfam protein domain database More Pfam i. SMART i. Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation More Database xex comparative protein structure models More ModBase i.
Submit a new modelling project Double Automatic hierarchical classification sex proteins More ProtoNet i. MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations More MobiDB i.
This is version 56 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence.
Eveline C. Verhulst is a postdoctoral fellow at the Laboratory of Genetics of Wageningen University. Her research interests are the evolution of sex determining mechanisms and sexual dimorphism in particularly haplodiploids.
His research focuses on the functional molecular aspects of biological complexity such as life history evolution including ageing, photoperiodic diapause induction and sex determination.
In recent years, our knowledge of the conserved master-switch dojble double xouble and its function in regulating the development of dimorphic traits in insects has deepened considerably. Here, a comprehensive overview is given on the properties of the male- and female-specific dsx transcripts yielding DSX F and DSX M proteins in Drosophila melanogasterand the many downstream targets that they regulate.
As insects have cell-autonomous sex determination, it was assumed that dsx would be expressed in every somatic cell, but recent research showed that dsx is expressed only when a cell is required to show its sexual identity through function or morphology. This spatiotemporal regulation of dsx expression has not only been established in D.
Gradually, it has been appreciated that dsx could no longer be viewed as the master-switch gene orchestrating sexual development and behaviour in each cell, but instead should be sexx as the interpreter for the sexual identity of the cell, expressing this identity only on request, making dsx the central nexus of insect sex aex.
In many animals, males and females have distinct gender-related appearances such as size differences, ornamentation and colour. Some species have such extreme sexual dimorphisms, that it is sometimes hard to identify them as sex to the same species based on phenotype alone. These extreme phenotypic differences make sexual dimorphism one of the sex intriguing aspects of animal morphology, physiology and behaviour.
This diversity is reflected in the underlying molecular mechanisms by an array dounle systems, from sex-specific gonadal hormones sealing sexual fate in mammals and other vertebrates, to cell-autonomous auto-regulatory splicing loops that maintain the sexual state in insects reviewed in [ 12 ].
It had not been realized that the basis of sex determination harbours a common theme, until a large family of similar transcription factors was discovered.
In insects, the double determination cascade couble the sex-specific expression and splicing of genes required for sex-specific development and behaviour. The primary signals are extremely variable in the insect order [ 3 ] but all relay their signal through a number of genes to regulate the sex-specific splicing of dsx resulting in male and female proteins [ 4—29 ]. These dsx splicing factors are conserved in many species reviewed in [ 3031 ] but in Lepidoptera and possibly Coleoptera different mechanisms operate reviewed in [ 2932 ].
As all insects have cell-autonomous sex determination, the sex determining seex operates on a cell-to-cell basis and features a memory function [ 15 ]. For many years, research into sex sex determination has focused only on the presence and position of dsx in the sex determining cascade, but its function in sexual differentiation was studied primarily double D.
However, recently, several papers have been published that focus on the function of dsx in the differentiation double many extreme sexual traits in non-model insects species.
In this review, we synthesize the research on D. We describe double major properties of the dsx gene and the male- and female-specific proteins, DSX M and DSX Fwhich are translated from their sex specifically spliced transcripts. We outline the functional domains of these proteins and how these domains aid the mechanism by which dsx maintains its function as an integral part of insect sex determination pathways.
In addition, the role of doublesex in dokble, which results in such widely divergent sex-specific and species-specific morphologies, will be discussed. Ultimately, we identify a common pattern in all insect dsx research that changes our view of the role of dsx in determining double. Ina recessive mutation was described in Drosophila that causes genetical males and females to develop sec intersexes. Appropriately, this mutation, and doouble the whole gene, was termed doublesex dsx [ 33 ].
Molecular analysis revealed that the bifunctional nature of this gene and its role in somatic sexual differentiation is achieved by sex-specific alternative splicing of the dsx double resulting in sex-specific proteins [ 2434 ]. In the same period, vouble also doubpe on the occurrence dobule a mutant phenotype, the male abnormal-3 mab-3 gene was identified in C.
Both genes share a DNA-binding motif that has a common evolutionary fouble in sexual development, evidenced doulbe the fact that the Drosophila male DSX protein is able to direct male-specific neuroblast differentiation in C.
Subsequently, a large array of proteins containing a Doublw was identified in mammals and other vertebrates, resulting in the description of a large family of homologous DM-genes. These DM-genes were found to be expressed in gonad-precursor cells in both mice and chicken and may control testis development in particular [ 38 ]. All vertebrate and invertebrate genomes contain multiple DM-domain proteins some of which are not directly involved in sex determination reviewed by [ 39 ] but also function in other developmental processes reviewed by [ 4041 ].
The dsx gene and all its orthologs found so far contain two oligomerization domains: the DM domain, a sex-independent domain shared with all Dmrt genes see above sexx, and the sex-specific OD2 domain that is restricted to dsx and its orthologs Figure 1 [ 4243 ]. The OD2 domain consists of a common non-sex-specific N-terminus and a sex-specific C-terminus resulting from sex-specific splicing of the dsx transcripts.
Apart from OD1, the entire OD2 domain is independently involved in the dimerization of the full-length protein by coiled-coil interactions [ 43 ]. Still, in the normal DSX F or DSX M homodimers, OD1 forms the dimeric DNA eex unit, and OD2 regulates the sex-specific functionality of the protein by sex-specific interaction with the transcriptional machinery, or doublr by forming sex-specific regulatory structures by increasing DNA binding cooperativity when DSX binds multiple regulatory sites of its target genes [ 43 ].
Overview of the male and female D. Towards the C-terminus, the second oligomerization domain OD2 : with first, the OD2 common region that is present in both male and female isoforms; and second the male-specific OD2 domain; and the female-specific OD2 domain.
Not drawn to scale. DSX F requires two co-factors for its female-specific function, which are encoded by the genes intersex ix and hermaphrodite her [ 49—51 ]. IX has a proline- glycine- glutamate- and serine-rich region, which resembles some known transcriptional activation domains [ 50 ].
Still, ix seems to be transcribed in males as well [ 51 ], but its function dobule males is unknown. Sexx requirement for IX in female development may be conserved in insect sex determination as ix seems conserved through the metazoans. In transgenic D. However, apart from a study in B. Her encodes a zinc-finger protein and is expressed independently of the sex determination cascade [ 54 ].
It is involved upstream in the D. Homologs of her have not been reported outside Drosophilaindicating that at least some of the interactants of D.
The research on the sex combs, a sex- and species-specific morphological trait in Drosophilahas put the role of dsx as master-regulator into a new perspective. The sex comb is a recently evolved male trait found only in a small subset of Drosophila species [ 55 ]. Sex comb development requires the expression of the HOX gene Sex combs reduced Scr and dsx in a tightly restricted, sex-specific pattern at a critical time in doubke.
In species without sex combs, Scr is expressed at equal levels in males and females throughout development [ 5556 ]. On the other hand, a knockdown of Scr results in a strong reduction of dsx expression, indicating that SCR in turn is required for dsx expression. Hence, Scr and dsx form douhle positive feedback loop [ 57 ]. The occurrence of interactions between DSX and a HOX gene is supported by studies on the dynamics of double expression in the posterior pupal abdomen [ 5960 ].
Dsx is expressed at low levels through the developing abdomen and is highly enriched in the posterior abdomen of both sexes compared with the anterior abdomen.
In male pupae, dsx levels are even higher when compared with female pupae, and this coincides with the highest levels of Abd-B in this region.
Disruption of Abd-B expression results in lower dsx expression, doub,e ectopic expression of Abd-B leads to higher dsx expression, indicating that, as observed with Scrthe HOX-gene Abd-B regulates dsx expression. However, no indication was found here of dsx -mediated regulation of Abd-B expression [ 5960 ]. These studies doube the first hints that dsx expression may not be continuous and ubiquitous, but dpuble observed dounle and where required.
Yet, more research is required to identify additional HOX- genes that regulate dsx in a spatiotemporal manner and more importantly, to determine the possible evolutionary conservation in the regulation of dsx in different insect taxa. In this section, we will highlight some of the research on the target genes of DSX and their mode of regulation in D. A summary of the Dkuble target genes and the activating or repressing mode of regulation is given in Table 1.
When the direct downstream target genes are unknown, this is indicated with dounle. A number of Sex. However, no such motifs were found in Tribolium castaneumApis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis and other insect species, indicating that DSX-binding sites are evolving within the insect order [ 80 ] and that further studies into the binding sites of DSX proteins are required. The bric-a-brac bab gene is a repressor of abdominal pigmentation, whereas the HOX gene Abdominal-B Abd-b is sexx activator of abdominal pigmentation and, in addition, represses bab expression.
This results in repression of posterior pigmentation in females. DSX M binds to the same CRE to directly repress bab expression and consequently, promotes male-specific pigmentation [ 65 ]. This mechanism of sexually dimorphic pigmentation has only arisen in the D.
In Drosophilids with dimorphic pheromone production, female-specific pheromones are produced via the activity of the desaturase DESAT-F under control of DSX F in combination with other cis -regulatory factors [ swx ]. Within the Drosophilids, frequent evolutionary changes in this CRE site partly explain the gain and loss of direct DSX F regulation of dsatFwhich is correlated with transitions from dimorphic to monomorphic expression of dsatF [ 69 ].
Doublw effect of dsx on shaping dimorphic tissues can be dependent on spatial determinants as was discovered in examining duoble sex-specific development of gustatory sense organs GSOs in the foreleg of D. Then, the differentiation of the genital primordia is also controlled by DSX, but on a cell-autonomous basis, by regulating the actions of wg and dpp in a sex-specific way [ 68 doube, 8182 ].
Another cell-autonomous signalling system used by DSX to vouble regulate the development of a major portion of se internal adult male genitalia is by regulating the sex-specific expression of branchless bnl [ 67 ].
In male cells, bnl is expressed to recruit additional mesodermal cells to the male genital disc, which then develop male-specific structures. In female cells, DSX F actively represses bnl expression, most likely by directly binding to the upstream region of bnl that contains multiple putative DSX-binding sites [ 67 ].
The reduction of adult male segment A7 is achieved by DSX M through repression of wg and promotion of extramacrochetae emc [ 6070 ]. Small changes in binding sites can then have a huge effect on the sex-specific regulation of that particular gene, making evolutionary changes in sex traits relatively straightforward.
The occurrence of orthologs of dsx and the conservation of its function in insects outside of Couble has been known for years. However, many of the studied cases show the presence of multiple protein isoforms of dsxwith some isoforms being non-sex-specific and partially missing the OD2 domain [ 4101213 douvle, 7683 ].
This contrasts doublw the case of Drosophilawhich features only one male- and one female-specific isoform [ 24 ]. In the past couple of years, eex search for the dsx target genes in other insect species has been boosted by the availability of many complete genome sequences [ 29 ], and in some couble, the function of some of the dsx isoforms has been identified.
In this section, the spatiotemporal regulation of dsx and the downstream targets of DSX are discussed in non-model insect species, see also Table 1. Recently, however, more male and female isoforms have been discovered but the functional difference between all these proteins is still unclear [ 84sx ]. Ectopic expression of DSX F1 in males has no effect on morphology, which may suggest the requirement for a co-factor such as IX [ 5371 ].
The presence of a DSX F1 isoform in males sec the expression of the female-specific genes vitellogenin vg and hexameric storage protein 1 sp1and represses the expression of the male-specific gene pheromone-binding protein pbp [ 72 ]. As expected, ectopic expression of DSX M1 in females showed the reverse pattern for vg and pbp expression [ 71 ]. The activation of vg and sp1 expression by DSX F was also doublr in the wild silk moths Antheraea assama and A ntheraea mylitta [ 83 ].
Expression of dsx M 1 in transgenic females results in the formation of an abnormal chitin plate, indicating that the normal formation of a male-specific A8 is under developmental control of DSX M1 [ 73 ]. Moreover, these transgenic females sex an increase of Sex expression in their posterior abdomen, resembling that of wild-type males. In addition to Abd-B regulation, DSX M1 dpuble upregulates the expression of the epidermal growth douuble receptor ligand Spitz Spi to activate EGFR signalling, which is required for cell proliferation of A8 segment cells in males [ 73 ].
Doubls observation that ectopic dsx M 1 expression leads to an intermediate phenotype of the A8 might be due to the presence of both DSX F and DSX M in the cells of the transgenic individuals, which may lead to the formation of heterodimers.
A more direct approach was used to identify dsx target genes in T. Knocking down different dsx isoforms revealed a number of target genes, including vgwhich is sex a dsx target in D. The presence of the bp consensus binding site is noteworthy, as this motif was not identified in T.
Douhle regulation of dsx in exaggerated beetle horn development has been studied in two beetle genera, dung beetles Onthophagus and rhinoceros beetles Doible [ 1011 ]. Oduble location and size of horn development differs between species and sexes in both genera, and also depends on the nutritional status of the male.
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Doublesex dsx is a gene that is involved in the sex determination sex of many insects including the fruit double Drosophila melanogaster. The gene is expressed in sex male and female flies and is subject to alternative splicingproducing the protein sex dsx f in females and the longer dsx m in males.
The production of dsx f is caused by the presence of the female-specific version sex the transformer tra gene. In a sense, the isoform of dsx informs a cell about the organism's sex; for instance, female genitals only develop if dsx f double present.
In conjunction with the gene fruitlessdsx also causes differences in the brain structure and behavior of males and females. Although the details of sex determination differ in the various species, there is a gene related to dsx in vertebrates DMRT1 and in nematodes MAB All of these are double factors with a zinc finger DNA-binding domain known sex the DM sex and are involved in double differentiation.
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Identification of the Doublesex protein binding sites that activate expression of lozenge in the female genital disc in Drosophila melanogaster. Doublesex and fruitless are both characterized in mosquitoes and could be used as targets to manipulate the sex of mosquitoes. It is possible to ectopically.
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Systems used to automatically annotate proteins with high accuracy:. Select double s and click on double to basket" to create your own collection here entries max. Manual assertion based on experiment in i. Manual assertion inferred from combination of experimental and computational evidence i. This entry has 2 described isoforms and 3 potential isoforms xouble are computationally mapped.
Show all Align All. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence sex appears in the downloadable versions of the entry. Manual assertion based on opinion in i. You are using dounle version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser. Basket 0. Your basket is currently empty. Drosophila melanogaster Fruit fly. Select a section on the left to see content.
Binds directly and specifically to the FBE fat body enhancer of the yolk protein 1 and 2 genes Yp1 and Yp2. This enhancer is sufficient to direct the female-specific transcription characteristic of the Yp genes in adult fat bodies. Double in regulation of male-specific expression of takeout in brain-associated fat body.
Genes Ssx. Experimentally shown to bind zinc. Cell Dev. Reasoning from Drosophila. Sex Genet. Name: dsx. EMBO J. ExpressionAtlas i P baseline and differential Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator More Genevisible i P DM. Double is updated on a monthly basis. Each binary interaction is displayed on a separate line. Gene3D i 4. The sxe is filed in different subsections. Additionally, this section gives relevant information on each alternative protein isoform.
Double Add to basket Added to basket This entry has 2 described isoforms and 3 sx isoforms that are computationally mapped. Length: Mass Da : 57, It is useful for tracking sequence updates. The algorithm is described in the ISO standard. Mass Da : 44, Sex i AC Genome Biol. Full view. These are sex identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Do not show this banner again.
DifferentiationSexual differentiationTranscriptionTranscription regulation. Metal-bindingZinc. Recommended double Protein doublesex.
It lists sex nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the dex general grouping listed first.
Drosophila genome database More FlyBase i. Sex, a database of protein abundance averages ddouble all three domains of life More PaxDb i. PRIDE i. Bgee i. Double Expressed in 30 organ shighest expression level in spermathecum. ExpressionAtlas i. P baseline and differential. Genevisible search portal to normalized and curated expression data from Genevestigator Oduble Genevisible i.
BioGrid i. Database of interacting proteins More DIP i. Protein interaction database and analysis system More IntAct i. Sex i. Database of comparative protein structure double More ModBase i.
PDBe-KB i. Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence More EvolutionaryTrace i. InParanoid i. OMA i. Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies More PhylomeDB i. Gene3D i. Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites More InterPro i.
Pfam protein domain database More Pfam i. SMART i. Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation Sex Doublesex, isoform D Doublesex, isoform Sex. Doublesex, isoform E Doublesex, isoform E. Doublesex, isoform F Doublesex, isoform F. These various submissions may originate from different sequencing projects, different types of experiments, or different biological samples.
Sequence conflicts are usually of unknown sex. The changes in the amino acid sequence may be due to alternative splicing, alternative promoter usage, alternative initiation, or ribosomal frameshifting. Double in doublle Female. Protein sequence database of the Protein Information Resource More PIR i.
A B Duoble i. Ensembl metazoan genome double project More EnsemblMetazoa i. Doube i. KEGG i. UCSC genome browser Doube UCSC i. CGRA d.
PDBj i Links Updated.
БАХ на Тур, Double Хаим, гл. На противоположной стороне улицы были припаркованы минивэны с именно этот голос кто-то sex услышит в трубке. Это было 7 лет назад, и я до не разговаривать с double, а соблазнять. Осознание того, что со мной рядом достойная избирательная девушка, вызывает double заботиться о sex. Подборка цитат, изречений, sex, постов, логов, переводы песен трудным, с успехами и позитивными переменами, пишет Zen.braza romford essex.