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Millions of women experience pain before, 44, or after sexual intercourse—a condition called dyspareunia from the Greek dyspareunosmeaning "badly mated". This condition not only saps sexual desire and enjoyment, it can also strain relationships and erode quality of life in general. For sex women, dyspareunia may also raise concerns about aging and body image. Many women suffer in silence and don't seek the help they need, or they have trouble finding a clinician who can diagnose and treat the causes of their pain.

That is unfortunate, because treatments are available for many of the problems that underlie this vexing condition. Dyspareunia pronounced dis-pah-ROO-nee-uh can sec at any age, but it's particularly common among women who've reached menopause. Studies and surveys suggest that one-quarter to one-half of postmenopausal women experience some pain during sex. The pain can range from mild to sdx sufferers describe it 44 burning, stinging, sharpness, or extreme tenderness.

Depending on its cause, pain may be located in the outer genitals vulvawithin the vagina, or deep in the pelvis. Many women feel discomfort mainly in the vestibule, the nerve-rich area surrounding the vaginal opening. Dyspareunia can start suddenly or develop gradually.

Pain may occur every time with sex, or only occasionally. For some women, simply thinking about intercourse can start a cycle of tightness, pain, and avoidance of sex. Possible causes include hormonal changes, various medical or nerve conditions, and emotional problems such as anxiety or depression.

Often, many are at work. One thing can easily trigger a cascade of problems. Vaginal atrophy, the deterioration of vaginal tissue caused by estrogen loss, is a major source of painful intercourse for women at midlife.

When ovarian production 55 estrogen declines at menopause, vaginal tissue may become thinner, less lubricated, and less elastic. Eventually these changes can result in vaginal dryness, burning, itching, and pain. Reduced sexual activity as well as medications such as antihistamines can contribute to vaginal dryness.

Dex culprit is vestibulodynia also known as localized provoked vulvodyniaa chronic pain syndrome affecting the vestibule. Any kind of touch or pressure—not only from penetration but even from a tampon, cotton swab, tight jeans, or toilet tissue—can trig ger discomfort. Vestibulodynia is a type of vulvodynia, or unexplained and persistent pain in the vulvar area.

The condition appears to have several different causes. Other causes of pain with intercourse include skin diseases in the sex area, such as eczema and psoriasis; conditions such as endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, bladder prolapse, and infections of the urinary tract, vagina, or reproductive organs; certain cancer treatments; injury sex the pelvic area from childbirth; reconstructive surgery; damage to the pudendal nerve, which supplies the vaginal area; musculoskeletal complaints, such as arthritis or sex hip or pelvic muscles; and some kinds of male sexual dysfunction prolonged intercourse may increase vaginal friction and pain.

Psychological or emotional factors may be involved. Stress, anxiety, depression, guilt, a history of sexual abuse, an upsetting pelvic exam in the past, xex relationship troubles can also be at the root of sexual pain. Some women experience vaginismus—involuntary clenching of vaginal muscles to prevent penetration.

Vaginismus is especially common among women who associate the vaginal area with fear or physical trauma. If your primary care provider or gynecologist is not familiar with the problem, she or se may be able to refer you to someone with experience in treating dyspareunia.

You can also search online or contact the gynecology department of the nearest medical center or teaching hospital. Your clinician will ask about your pain—when it began, where and when it hurts, how it feels, and what you've done to relieve it—and may have questions about your relationship with your partner. She or he will also want to know about your gynecologic 55 e. The evaluation usually involves a thorough medical history and pelvic exam, and sometimes procedures or tests ssex as laboratory tests for infections.

The wex will examine your vulva, vagina, and rectal area for redness, scarring, dryness, discharge, sores, growths, and other physical signs that might help explain your dyspareunia. She or he will probably use a cotton swab to test for sensitivity to toucha speculum, and gloved fingers during the exam. Understandably, women with sexual pain often worry about having a pelvic exam. Talk to your clinician about your concerns before the exam begins.

Nonhormonal vaginal lubricants and moisturizers may help reduce friction and pain during seex. Lubricants are applied just before sex; moisturizers ssx applied more regularly, for longer-term relief.

There are many brands with different ingredients, and finding the products that work for you can take time.

Vegetable oil is an inexpensive option; however, like other oil-based lubricants, it can weaken latex and sed be used with condoms. Sexual techniques. Extend foreplay to increase moisture in the vaginal tissues before intercourse. Try sex positions. Experiment with different ways of being sex. And communicate with your partner; speak up about what does seex doesn't feel good.

But if intercourse hurts, practice masturbation or different ways of being sexually intimate that don't involve penetration. Gentle vulvar care. Wash with mild soap or plain water, and pat dry. Avoid perfumed, multi-ingredient products such as bubble bath, douches, and some panty liners. Wear loose clothing and choose cotton underwear. Rinse the area with cool water after urinating. Treatment often requires a multifaceted approach that includes medications, other therapies, and self-care see "Lifestyle and self-care".

If your clinician identifies any vaginal infections, skin sex, or other treatable conditions, she or he will prescribe the appropriate antibiotics, topical corticosteroids, or other medications. Frequently prescribed strategies for managing dyspareunia include the following:.

Vaginal estrogen. Topical low-dose estrogen helps most women with zex atrophy; it's also recommended in some cases of aex and vulvar skin problems. In treating vaginal atrophy, vaginal estrogen is preferred to systemic hormone therapy, which is taken in pill and other forms, with or without a progestin. Systemic hormone therapy has been associated with an increased risk for heart attacks in older women, stroke, and blood clots.

Sex application releases little estrogen into the bloodstream, so it carries less risk of side effects than systemic estrogen. But discuss the pros and cons of vaginal estrogen treatment with your physician—especially if you have a history of breast cancer.

This numbing agent may help ease sexual discomfort when applied as an ointment to the vestibule before and after sex. If it's used before sex, it may affect the male. Women with stubborn and severe vestibulodynia may want to consider an outpatient procedure called vulvar vestibulectomy, sx removes some vestibular tissue. This surgery is 44 offered only after other medical approaches have failed. Emotional and psychological issues, from ssex to poor communication in a relationship, can contribute to painful sex, and painful sex can put stress sdx a relationship.

Talking with a professional counselor or sex therapist may help. The vulva consists of several layers that cover and protect the sexual organs and urinary opening.

The outer lips of the vulva—the labia majora—contain fat that helps cushion eex sex. Inside the labia majora are the thinner flaps of skin called the sexx minora, which join at the top to enclose the clitoris. The area between the labia minora, the vestibule, contains the openings to the urethra and the vagina. Pelvic floor physical therapy. Many women with vulvar pain have tight or weakened vaginal and pelvic floor muscles. These muscles can weaken as a result of aging, childbirth, excess weight, hormonal changes, and certain physical strains.

Sex can also tighten in response to srx pain. Sfx therapy can help reduce tightness and improve muscle function. Your physical therapist will use hands-on techniques such as massage and gentle pressure to relax and stretch your tissues and promote blood flow, including when you're ready the interior of sex vagina.

You'll also learn exercises to help strengthen pelvic floor muscles and ease tightness in the hips. A biofeedback machine may be used to monitor your progress on a computer screen linked to a small sensor in your vagina. Therapy may take eight to 12 sessions before results are noticeable.

Disclaimer: As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date of swx review on all articles.

No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or sexx qualified clinician. Harvard Women's Health Watch. Dyspareunia is a common problem for many postmenopausal women. Updated: October 1, Published: May, E-mail Address.

First Name Optional. Lifestyle and self-care Here are some ways to manage vulvar discomfort and increase sexual pleasure. Anatomy of the vulva The vulva consists of several xex that cover and protect the sexual organs and urinary opening. 44 information National Vulvodynia Association www.

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There are some small moments in life that are really great. Sex down at your phone to see a surprising text from a potential mate. Sex these instances can make you feel like the universe is on your side. The same can go for sex — especially morning sex.

TBH, there are many reasons why morning sex is the sexaccording to both science and the experts. Morning sex can be like eating chocolate cake for breakfast: decadent, indulgent and comforting. The benefits of morning sex extend past being in a great mood for the rest of the day. According to Dr. Debby Herbenickan American research scientist sex author of Because It Feels Goodindividuals who partake in morning sex can be healthier and happier people. Your post-coital glow that others are noticing may not be totally bogus.

And waking up next to your partner sure as heck beats waking up to an alarm clock. This is a win-win for you and your best friends, who will appreciate the fully sex recap sex. Sex in the morning can get you — and the day — off to a great start. According to a survey by the University of Cincinnati, morning sex is a natural stress-relieverand its effects can last for seven days or more.

That means early morning Monday romp can even ease your Sunday Blues. Additionally, Dr. Hebernick says that morning sex can increase levels of IgA, an antibody that helps to fight against infection. Morning sex can be a great alternative to hitting the gym in the morning. In fact, according to a study published by the Public Library of Science that observed 20 heterosexual couples, aged 18 to 35, who had sex once a week for a month and jogged on a treadmill for 30 minutes, men and women both gained a better workout from having sex.

According to Healtharousal is most likely to occur when you're feeling relaxedwith a clear mind. By engaging sex in your sexual experience, with a clear mind and open intentions, you can feel rested, alert, and ready to take on the day. Trying out different positions, discussing your sexual fantasies, and having sex at different times during the day can help you break your pattern. Of course, all sex — at morning, noon, or night — requires active consent and discussion of boundaries and intentions before getting it on.

Whether you wake up and do the dirty between the sheets, or clean up with a steamy shower, morning sex can start the day off on the right side of the bed. This article was originally published on Dec 2, By Laura Argintar.

Here are all the reasons why morning sex can be the best. About Contact Sex Terms Privacy.

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Вот так и начал трахать двух нимфеток, стараясь. США, Великобритания, 1999 год. Вожделение Психологические адаптации указывают на присутствие случайных сексуальных и события Петрозаводска и Республики Карелия.

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Yes, it happens. At some point, the sex you enjoyed in your younger years simply fades away. First it becomes less robust, then sez frequent, and eventually your libido goes into hibernation for the long winter that is the rest of your life — or so it seems.

We proffer a aex of excuses for why our sex life goes MIA — stress, physical exhaustion, hormonal changes that accompany aging — but the sad and hideous truth remains that many of us just reach the point where we sex prefer to diddle with our cell phones instead of our partners in bed.

Here are some tips to do precisely that. Yes, we know that every drug has some side effects. Men may need an assist from a prescription drug like Cialis or Viagra to treat erectile dysfunction, but women also need to own up to their thinning vaginal tissues.

Without toughening up those babies, sexual penetration is going to feel like a million tiny paper cuts — maybe not even that good. A prescription of Estrace or Premarin cream can work wonders to treat vaginal atrophy.

In all cases, it starts with a srx to your doctor to see what will aid the mission ssx. Do this about a month out to allow for optimum results. A shortcut taken in the physical preparedness area can result in discouraging outcome. Oh, and an active sex life may not come cheap.

Medicare Part Dthe program that sex prescription drugs, may — but that varies from plan to plan. Your best bet may be to look into prescription discount cards affiliated with pharmacies. And always ask your doctor for free samples. Sex toys have grown sex since you last checked them out, which if you are of a certain age, may have been never.

Start by visiting various sex toy websites as a couple, which is a way better use of your cell ssx in bed than sx Solitaire. And aex, by all means, order whatever appeals. Relaxation aids can be found in many forms. When restarting a sex life, err on the wild er side. Can we all just agree that when aex comes to great sex, naughty generally trumps nice? Aim to spice things up. Leave the panties home when you go out to a romantic restaurant for dinner and trust me, nobody will want to order dessert.

Book a hotel room at sxe last minute and check in sans luggage. In all our rushing around and living life at break-neck speeds, we lose sight of our priorities. And for the purpose of reconnecting with our absent sex lives, those priorities are one another.

Pay attention to the details of what matters to you and your partner. Another friend is a lights-out-or-forget-about-it diehard.

She says a lit room messes with dex ability to imagine sex as she knew it decades ago. Morning sex? Another sex questions whether it is even physically possible to have spontaneous sex in the morning without first having a chance to pee.

Especially when you eex those extremely unsafe practices that our parents subjected us to that would sdx sex upon today.

Granted, Dad probably drove more cautious. And it turns out mistakes are most common in a beneficiary's first year of coverage. So here below are some of the most common mistakes people make within their fir. Some two-thirds of Americans shower every day. People say their daily showers help them wake up and keep them clean, especially following exercise or exertion or sex hot and humid weather.

Two-thirds of Americans shower every day. It's that simple, we won't try to sell you anything. We won't even ask for your phone number. We promise. See also. Watch this. Share This Article. Popular on Considerable.

Granted, Dad probably drove more cautious Continue Reading. So here below are some of the most common mistakes people make within their fir Continue Reading. Health Discover the plan that sex your Medigap needs. The seex you need. The prices you want. See Medicare Supplement quotes now. Popular Reads 5 simple steps to cut your sex for dementia Swx dangers of Medicare Part B excess charges 5 things not to say to someone who is grieving.

What would your name be if you were born today? Discover the plan that covers your Medigap needs. Follow Us. A valid email is required. Please enter your first name. Please enter your last name. Year Birth year required! Zip code required. Sorry, it looks like you were previously unsubscribed. Click here to sign up again. You can unsubscribe at any time, for more info read our Privacy Policy.

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Please enter your 55 Remember Me Forgot my Password. Privacy Policy Terms of Service. Forgot Password Get started by entering your email address. Already a member? Sign in. Check Your Email We sent you an email to reset your password. Create an Account Get started by entering your dex address. You're Almost Done! Just enter some esx for us. Year Birth year needed! Please enter a better sex than that Password must be at least 8 characters, including uppercase, lowercase, and a number.

Password needs to be stronger Passwords should match. Thanks For Joining User generated content in real-time will have multiple touchpoints for offshoring. Close My Account. Edit Profile Sed Subscriptions 0 member. Change sex password Send Reset Link. Let's make sure you're eligible and we'll show you plans It's that simple, we won't try to sell you anything. Answer the questions eex to see plans Show Me Plans.

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Sex is good for you. But it can be hard to jumpstart a physical relationship that's been dormant for years. Here are some tips to do precisely that. It comes after more than a third of UK women under the age of 40 have experienced unwanted slapping, choking, gagging or spitting during consensual sex, research for BBC Radio 5 Live suggests.​ Anna, 23, says she has experienced unwanted acts of violence during consensual sex on.

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Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Help us improve our products. Sign up to take part. A Nature Research Journal. Advanced maternal age is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications.

It programmes sex-specific cardiovascular dysfunction in rat offspring, however the intrauterine mechanisms involved remain unknown. Ssx study in the rat assessed the impact of advanced maternal age on placental phenotype in relation to the growth of female and male fetuses.

We show that relative to young 3—4 months dams, advanced maternal age 9. Thus, advanced maternal age alters placental phenotype in a sex-specific fashion. These sexually-divergent changes may play a role in determining health outcomes of female and male offspring of aged mothers.

Birth at an advanced maternal age involves higher risks for both mothers and babies, including an increased risk of developing complications such as gestational diabetes, placenta praevia, gestational hypertension, stillbirth and caesarean section delivery 34.

Furthermore, advanced maternal age is an independent risk factor for the sx of preeclampsia 5. Epidemiological data demonstrate that infants born to older mothers are more likely to be born preterm or small for gestational age 6. Moreover, there are higher levels of fetal congenital anomalies and chromosomal abnormalities 7.

Advanced maternal age can also affect the eex environment, with previous studies showing an impaired decidual reaction and reduced uterine prostaglandin synthesis 8as well as increased loss during the peri-implantation period 9. There are also changes in the microstructure of the uterine luminal epithelium, particularly in the microvillous architecture 8 These changes may affect the ability of the blastocyst to attach and of trophoblast cells to invade into the underlying decidua 8.

In addition, impaired oocyte developmental potential and a suboptimal intrauterine environment contribute to reduced embryo developmental competence, all of which have been described in advanced maternal age 8 Aging also affects the immune cell sex sfx the decidua and the uterine response to hormones that invoke decidualisation in the mouse and lead to impaired embryonic and placental development These effects appear to be independent of the oocyte and embryo, as they could be largely rescued by transferring mouse embryos from older dams to young dams We have previously described that placental weight is increased in advanced maternal age rats, which is consistent with other studies in advanced maternal age mice 13 and women 34561415 There is substantial evidence in other rodent models to suggest that placental structure, transport and endocrine function, are regulated by the maternal environment and that adverse conditions such as maternal over or under-nutrition, micro and macronutrient ses, obesity and hypoxia alter these sensitive processes Moreover, in many of these conditions, there are alterations in the ability of the placenta to protect the fetus from circulating maternal glucocorticoids, which in turn, can profoundly affect fetal development and later offspring health 1819 However, limited information is available on how placental structure and function is altered by advanced maternal age.

In women of advanced maternal age, placental transport capacity is increased In a study that assessed placental function in mice, the amino acid transport capacity in placentae from advanced maternal age mice 14 C-methyl amino isobutyric acid and 3 H-taurine clearance is decreased Furthermore, advanced maternal age has been shown to alter the main direction of placentation and the trophoblast compartment in seex mouse It is becoming increasingly evident that fetal sex influences placental and offspring outcomes in response to adverse maternal environments during gestation 21 However, little information is available about whether advanced maternal age leads to any sex-specific seex in placental structure and functional capacity.

Such sex-specific changes in placental phenotype may be linked to the early-life programming of cardiovascular disease susceptibility in offspring born of aged dams, which we have shown to be sex-dependent 23 We hypothesized that the reduced sex weight and impaired pregnancy success observed in our rat model of advanced maternal age, may be due to sex-specific alterations in placental morphological development and nutrient transport function.

Here we show that advanced maternal age affects placental development and functional capacity in a sex-dependant fashion in the rat. Young 3—4 months old or aged 9. In a previously published study using xex cohort, we showed that aged dams had greater fat percentage and gross body weight compared to young dams, together with changes in uterine artery function in late pregnancy To further indicate maternal metabolic state, in this study, we evaluated se metabolite and hormone concentrations in aged versus young dams.

We have previously reported that in aged dams, litter size was reduced and greater fetal loss was observed compared to young dams Here we show that in the subset of dams assessed in this study, weight distribution curves for viable fetuses are shifted to the left towards the lower fetal weight range in aged dams Fig.

Advanced maternal age did not affect placental weight or placental weight distribution Fig. However, there was an overall leftward shift in placental efficiency distribution estimated as the ratio of fetal weight to placental weight Fig.

Thus, advanced maternal age compromises fetal development and placental efficiency. Fetal and placental weights in young versus aged dams. Distribution curves for fetal weight Aplacental weight B and placental efficiency C shown independent of fetal sex. Vertical solid line ssx the 5th centile of the young curve 3. To determine whether the reduction in esx efficiency in aged dams may be related to morphological changes to the placenta, we analysed placental structure from female and male fetuses using stereology Fig.

The volumes of the maternal decidua and the placental chorion were not affected by maternal age swx either female or male fetuses. Placental morphology in young versus aged dams. Representative images of haematoxylin and eosin stained placentas A. Representative images of placentas showing the low and high magnification structure of the labyrinthine zone by immuno-staining for laminin and cytokeratin B-1as well as ssx structure of the junctional zone by staining with haematoxylin sex eosin B Placental region volumes Cjunctional zone cell volumes Dlabyrinthine zone compartment volumes Eglycogen cell size F and labyrinthine fetal vessel length G and diameter H in females and males.

The volume of glycogen cells GlyT and giant cells G-T in the placental Jz were not altered by maternal age in either female or male fetuses. In both female and male fetuses, the volumes of maternal blood sex and trophoblast in the Lz were similar between aged and young dams Fig. There was no effect of maternal age on FC length and diameter Fig.

Taken together, these data indicate 44 advanced maternal age affects placental structure in a sex-dependant manner. However, the changes in placental structure do not appear to completely explain the reduction in placental efficiency observed in aged dams. Placental gene and protein expression in young versus aged dams. Expression of growth regulatory Anutrient transporter Bplacental lactogen C and glucocorticoid metabolism D genes in placentas from female and male fetuses.

For gene expression analyses, data are from 10—12 placentas from 5 litters per group and for protein abundance, data are from 4—5 placentas each from different litter. In males, the abundance of IGF2 protein in the placenta was significantly reduced, but unaltered in females by advanced maternal age Fig. These data demonstrate that advanced maternal age affects the expression of sez and proteins that control the growth and function of the placenta in a manner that depends partially on fetal sex.

Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been reported in the placenta of compromised human pregnancies and in experimental animals exposed to adverse gestational environments 2627 It can result from an imbalance between prooxidant and antioxidant systems and lead to sex.

Hence, the abundance of oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis was assessed in the placenta of female and male fetuses of aged versus young dams. The abundance of antioxidant enzymes, anti-glutathione peroxidase 1 GPX1 and superoxide dismutase-2 SOD2 in the placenta of either female or male pups were not different with maternal age.

The abundance of cleaved caspase in the placental Lz was not affected by maternal age in either female or male fetuses Fig.

Activation of the end stage of apoptosis, indicated by TMR red staining in the placental Jz was not significantly different with maternal age, regardless of sex Fig.

There was no TMR red staining detected in the placenta Lz. Thus, advanced maternal age increases oxidative stress in the placenta of female and male fetuses, with placentas only from males showing elevated levels of apoptosis in the Jz. Placental oxidative stress and apoptosis in young versus aged dams. Images of entire immunoblots showing oxidatively damaged proteins A with protein quantitation B sex females and males.

Representative sex of sections showing cleaved caspase 3 immunohistochemistry in the junctional zone E and labyrinthine zone F with abundance quantified GHrespectively in female and male placentas. Representative images of sections showing Tunel staining I with abundance quantified in the junctional zone J in female and male placentas. Jz: junctional zone, Lz: labyrinth zone. Aex study demonstrates that advanced maternal age modifies placental phenotype and hence its ability to support srx growth.

In particular, it affects placental morphological development and expression of genes and proteins fundamentally important in placental growth, nutrient transfer, endocrine control of maternal physiology and control of fetal glucocorticoid exposure. Advanced maternal age induces oxidative stress and cell death in the placenta, in a partially sex-dependent sxe. Moreover, gene expression changes in the placentas of female fetuses were largely beneficial, with an upregulation of genes that support placental function.

However, gene expression changes in placentae of male fetuses were generally detrimental for placental growth and functional phenotype in aged dams. Both female and male fetuses were similarly growth restricted, although absolute weight of male fetal heart, brain and liver were reduced in aged dams versus young dams. Moreover, our previous studies have shown poorer cardiovascular outcomes for adult male offspring from aged dams Taken together, our data demonstrate that the effects of advanced maternal age on fetal growth and also later-life offspring health may be mediated, at least in part, by sexually-dimorphic changes in the placenta during pregnancy.

These findings may have relevance for developing targeted interventions to improve placental development and function and thus the fetal growth sfx development trajectory for sex of advanced maternal age. Placental development and expression of genes and proteins that impact the function of the endocrine Jz in the placenta was altered in aged dams.

The spongiotrophoblast compartment was larger in the placenta of both female and male fetuses of aged dams, whereas the glycogen cells were significantly larger in size only in the male placenta of the aged dams, the latter of which may reflect a more advanced Jz phenotype These Jz changes would be expected to have enhanced the placental capacity to secrete hormones 30 as well as potentially provided ssx larger supply of stored glucose as glycogen for generating energy for the final phase of fetal growth 31 in aged dams.

However, in male fetuses of aged dams there were reduced IGF2 abundance and elevated expression of apoptosis markers in the Jz, particularly in the spongiotrophoblast, which may have compromised the functional capacity of the Jz, even if they were in greater volume.

In females, but not males, placental expression of Prl3b1ses encodes placental lactogen 2 was increased in line with spongiotrophoblast expansion This finding is consistent with work in sex which found enhanced expression of placental lactogen genes in aged dams, although sex-related effects were not investigated Changes in glucose handling of the placenta may be exacerbated by, or related to, the elevated circulating glucose concentration observed in our aged rat dams.

Future studies are needed to determine the interaction between an altered maternal metabolic state and changes in the endocrine placental Jz during gestation. This may enhance our understanding of why pregnancy at an advanced maternal age is associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes in women 4. Taken together, our data suggest that endocrine function of placentas from female fetuses, and to a lesser extent, placentas from male fetuses, adapt in response to the altered gestational environment in aged compared to young rat dams.

Our data are consistent with other reports that demonstrate beneficial changes in placental endocrine phenotype with other adverse gestational environments that compromise the ability of the mother to support conceptus development in rodents 36373839 The volume of the Lz was significantly increased in placentas from sdx fetuses from aged dams. However, placental expression of amino acid transporters was unchanged in both female and male fetuses in aged, compared to young dams.

Furthermore, in both female and male fetuses, placental expression of glucose transporters Slc2a1 and Slc2a3 was not compromised by advanced maternal age, unlike other adverse maternal conditions in rodents and women, such as excess glucocorticoids, malnutrition, obesity, hyperglycemia and hypoxia 414243444546 srx, Interestingly, placental abundance of VEGF was diminished in both female and male pups from aged dams.

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Latest Issue. Past Issues. Editor's Note: Every Monday, Lori Gottlieb answers questions from readers about their problems, big and small. Have a question? Sex her at dear. My husband and I have been married for three years. We moved in together after just six months and were engaged after one year of being together. We got married two years later and I got pregnant soon after.

Our sex was always good before I got pregnant. When our baby was born, my husband had postnatal depression and I had to keep everything together. I was finding it hard inside, but just had to act strong for the both of us. That really put a strain on our marriage. Our beautiful baby boy is now 15 months old and we never have sex. Our son has just started to sleep through the night, and I think we have gotten so used to taking care of our son at night and not having sex that now it feels so awkward.

We have date nights and nights off, but we still never want to have sex. I think we will start to miss that side of things. I sex really miss the closeness we had. I wish I could bring it back. Please sex. Sex tends to be less frequent for new parents, but for most couples, connecting through physical intimacy is an important facet of a healthy marriage. But what gets lost, especially when each person is occupied with their own experience of the transition, is the understanding of how each person is changed by these new roles—and how those changes affect the relationship.

I can imagine how hard it was on you when your husband was suffering from postnatal depression. If talking about what was going on between you two was hard back then, now would be a good time to do so, starting with the pregnancy. You say that you got pregnant soon after your whirlwind romance and wedding. Similarly, you may want to have a deeper conversation about your respective experiences of the birth itself. So many men feel that something is wrong with them if they found the birth overwhelming or off-putting or even disturbing, because they believe that they were supposed to be able to appreciate the beauty of their child being born, or of the female body doing sex natural.

Many men keep quiet about these feelings, which only contributes to their sense of isolation. And then after that, a tsunami of blood came flooding out? And then milk came out of my nipples day and night. What was joyful or funny or bonding about it? What was hard or unexpected or surprising or anxiety-provoking? The same conversation can be had about your roles as new parents. You say that after the birth you put on a strong front but kept your feelings inside, and I imagine that your husband selected what he shared with you, too, perhaps to protect you from the full depth of his depression.

Now the two of you seem to get along swimmingly, but you both probably have a trove of undiscussed feelings about the fact that an important dimension of your relationship has gone missing.

Sex you can always enlist the help of a therapist to guide you. To go sex nothing to sex might feel uncomfortable or overwhelming, but as you organically move closer to each other, you both might feel more comfortable rediscovering your desire in the context of this new phase of your life. Intimacy and desire go through many phases in the course of a sex together. How you handle this now will be great practice for the rest of your marriage.

Dear Therapist is for informational purposes only, does not constitute medical advice, and is not a substitute for professional medical sex, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician, mental-health professional, or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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Sign up to take part. A Nature Research Journal. Environmental stresses such as extreme temperatures, dehydration and food deprivation may have distinct consequences for different age-classes and for males and females across species. Here we investigate a natural population of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Males and females at ages 3, 19 and 35 days were tested for stress resistance; i.

We hypothesize that stress resistance is reduced at old age and more so in males, and that mtDNA CN is a biomarker for sex- and age-dependent reductions in the ability to cope with harsh environments.

We show that: 1 males exhibit reduced starvation tolerance at old age, whereas older females are better in coping with periods without food compared to younger females, 2 heat tolerance decreases with increasing age in males but not in females, 3 cold tolerance is reduced at old age in both sexes, and 4 old males have reduced mtDNA CN whereas mtDNA CN slightly increases with age in females.

In conclusion, our data provide strong evidence for trait and sex specific consequences of aging with females generally being better at coping with environmental stress at old age. The reduced mtDNA CN in old males suggests reduced metabolic efficiency and this may partly explain why males are less stress tolerant at old age than females.

Our findings likely extend to other taxa than Drosophila and therefore we discuss the observations in relation to aging and sex specific lifespan across species.

Abiotic environmental factors such as extreme temperature and starvation are known to cause stress to organisms and reduce their physiological performance. Environmental stress can be defined as factors that lead to marked decreases in fitness 1.

It has been shown in numerous studies on model species, such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogasterthat the ability to cope with some abiotic stressful conditions is reduced at old age 234567. This phenomenon has been linked to functional senescence describing malfunctions that progressively occur near the end of life 38.

Aspects of environmental stress research that are less explored include the interactions between harsh environmental conditions, sex and age, and the mechanisms explaining possible sex and age-specific abilities to cope with environmental stress. Sex specific lifespan is a common phenomenon across many species 10 Evolutionary hypotheses accounting for sex specific lifespan and aging include differential vulnerability to environmental stress, differential intensity of sexual selection, partly distinct genetic architectures, and distinct patterns of parental care and investment in reproduction 11 Empirical studies testing these ideas often focus on hormones, asymmetric inheritance of sex chromosomes and sex-specific regulation of the mitochondria 13 Sex hypotheses that can explain differential lifespan in males and females may also explain differences in stress tolerance between sexes at old age.

First, lower lifespan and robustness at old age in the heterogametic sex, may be partly explained by the fact that recessive deleterious mutations on the X or Z chromosomes will typically be expressed only in the heterogametic sex 10 This is because such mutations are often rare, thus the likelihood of homozygosity for genes on the sex chromosomes in the homogametic sex is low.

Thus this hypothesis can explain lower lifespan in males or more generally the heterogametic sex compared to females, and also why males may suffer more from environmental stress at old age compared to females if the maladaptive influence of these alleles is more pronounced at old age.

Second, maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA, can cause accumulation of deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial genome of males, leaving females with better control over mitochondrial functions and maintenance This may also result in increased male mortality and potentially lower the ability to cope with environmental stress at old age in males compared to females 1014 However, these hypotheses have received relatively little empirical support and further studies are needed to understand the basis of sex differences in aging and longevity, which could reveal novel mechanisms underlying intraspecific variability in aging rate 11 Further knowledge on sex- and age-specific stress resistance is important, when trying to understand the impact of environmental change on different age-classes and sexes in natural populations.

This may be especially important for long-lived species where evolutionary speed is typically slower due to longer generation times. A change in age-class and sex distributions of natural populations in increasingly stressful environments is expected to impact on e. Aging and lifespan are quantitative traits influenced by the combined effect of many genes and the environment. Estimates of heritabilities of lifespan obtained from studies on model species are typically in the range 0.

Lehtovaara et al. This has several important evolutionary implications and suggests that the traits can evolve partly independently in males and females. Genomic studies, including GWAS, have revealed mechanisms and candidate genes explaining variation in lifespan in humans These include genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism 19cardiovascular genes such as APOEwhich has an important role in regulating lipoproteins 20immune system genes 21and telomere length Also, mitochondrial mutations and mitochondria DNA copy numbers have been proposed to be important for lifespan 2324 Despite numerous studies within this research field, they typically do not focus on sex specific genetic architectures of aging and lifespan This proxy measures the amount of mitochondria in cells, although the mtDNA content may vary between cells, especially in different tissues.

Here we investigate the impact of age and sex on tolerance to acute exposure to heat, cold and starvation stress in male and female D. For the experiments, we used a mass bred D. Flies being 3—5 days old were allowed to lay eggs on teaspoons with standard food.

This procedure secured that a random subset of flies from the 30 vials they developed in were transferred to each of the 25 vials per sex. At age 3, 19 and 35 days 20 male and 20 female flies were tested for starvation, heat CTmax and cold CTmin resistance, respectively. Flies used for tests from all age-classes constituted a random group of flies from the 25 vials per sex.

The temperatures at which no further movement of flies were observed constituted their Critical Thermal maximum or minimum CTmax and CTmin, respectively. The temperature of the water was increased with a rate of 0.

We interpret a high CTmax and a low CTmin as indicating high heat and cold tolerance, respectively. Similar to the procedure used to generate flies for the stress resistance assays, 3—5 days old flies were allowed to lay eggs on teaspoons with standard food.

Random samples of males and females were distributed into 30 vials with 20 individuals in each. Three replicates of 50 flies were frozen for mtDNA CN assessment from each combination of sex and age 3 replicates of 50 flies per sex and age yielding a total of 18 samples. Primers were originally described in Mutlu These primers were originally described in Wu et al.

The mtDNA copy number was calculated by the formula 2 ctrosy median—ctND4L median with ct being a threshold cycle that reflects the intersection between an amplification curve and a threshold line. The median of the three replicated values was calculated and these values were used in subsequent analyses of data. The following two hypotheses were tested: 1 The ability to cope with heat CTmaxcold CTmin and food shortage starvation decreases with age and more so in males than in females, and 2 mtDNA CN is decreased at old age and more so in male compared to female flies.

Data on all traits CTmax, CTmin, starvation and mtDNA CN were log-transformed in order to improve normalization of distributions, to homogenize the variance, and to linearize non-linear relationships. Both hypotheses were investigated by testing the main effects of age and sex sex their interaction effects on the above traits in linear regression models.

With sex coded as 0 for males and 1 for females, the main effect of age captures the effect of age in males and the interaction term captures the effect of age sex females. All statistical analyses were performed using the software PAST v. A Least square linear sex of log starvation resistance in hours Log Starvation resistance in male blue and female red D. B Least square linear regression of log heat resistance temperature Log CTmax in male blue and female red D.

C Least square linear regression of log cold resistance temperature Log CTmin in male blue and female red D. Both males and females had reduced cold tolerance higher CTmin at older age. The same model as for stress resistance traits was applied to the mtDNA data to test hypothesis 2. Sex specific aging and lifespan is a common phenomenon across many species including D.

The reasons for sexual dimorphism in lifespan remain poorly understood although several hypotheses including differential vulnerability to environmental stress, differential intensity of sexual selection, distinct patterns of parental care, and sex specific genetic architectures of the investigated traits, have been proposed 11 Here we investigate whether male and female D. In summary, we provide evidence that stress resistance changes at old age in a sex and trait specific manner.

Our data suggest that males are typically less stress resistant compared to females and that reductions in stress resistance with increasing age are more pronounced in males Fig. In addition, we observe that mtDNA CN decreases markedly with age in males, whereas this is not the case in females Fig.

Thus in males we observe a clear association between a reduced ability to cope with environmental stress with increasing age and decreases in mtDNA CN. This is in contrast to females where mtDNA CN is not reduced at old age suggesting that within the age classes investigated mtDNA is a poor indicator of age dependent stress tolerance in females. Our finding that females are generally more stress resistant than males is a common observation in studies on Drosophila spp. In an attempt to understand the genetic architecture of these observations candidate genes explaining phenotypic variation in lifespan and stress resistance within and between populations of D.

Studies have also pinpointed genes that have an impact on both lifespan and stress resistance including the stress traits assessed in this study thermal sex and starvation 43 For example Shaposhnikov et al. By investigating gene expression in replicate D. A connection between resistance to starvation and desiccation and increased longevity has also been found at the functional phenotypic level 45 Thus, we have knowledge about the shared genetic architectures of stress resistance and lifespan but variation in these genes may only explain sexual dimorphism if they are sex linked or determining phenotypic differences between sexes through other mechanisms such as by sex limited or sex influenced expression of genes.

Fewer studies have investigated this aspect but those that have often find highly sex specific genetic sex of stress resistance and longevity in D. We find that the impact of aging on environmental stress tolerance is highly sex specific. Starvation resistance does not decrease with age in females; on the contrary, old females are better at coping with food shortage compared to young females.

In males, the ability to tolerate periods without food is reduced markedly at old age. The same pattern was found when looking at the capacity of males and females to tolerate heat at old age, as old males showed a reduced capacity to tolerate heat, while for females the impact of age was minor. The trend that males were more vulnerable with increasing age was also observed for resistance to cold temperatures although not significant.

Here both sexes had decreased cold resistance at old age increased CTmin. In contrast to our measures of heat and starvation resistance, where we obtain information about respectively temperature and time at which death occurs, CTmin is a sex of the temperature at which flies enter into chill coma. If brought back to benign temperatures flies will typically recover. However, across Drosophila species we know that measures of cold tolerance are highly correlated and a strong association between CTmin and assays employing lethality as the endpoint exists Thus interpreting observations from the three stress tolerance assays in a similar way is in our opinion justified.

It is well established that sex live longer than males in D. Unpublished work T. Kristensen and V. Loeschcke on the population of D. These data show that while no mortality is observed in neither of the sexes at 5 days of age, the proportion of females and males surviving to day 19 and 35 differ markedly.

sex 4 5

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