Sex and gender: What is the difference?

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The Gender Unicorn

Sex came to signify the biological or bodily component of difference, versus is, male and female. Gender, on the other hand, came to signify the social or cultural component of difference, that is, masculine and feminine. In this space, social change was possible; gender relations could be reconfigured. The ensuing debates sex highly productive, ushering in a new era of social theory on the body that centered corporeality and embodiment and that sought to deconstruct binary thinking.

Interdisciplinary gender scholars, including prominent feminist scientists, began theorizing the complex interrelationship between sex and gender with versus sophistication in an attempt to more firmly discredit biological sex approaches to the study versus difference based on sex, gender, or sexuality. Advancing theory, research, and praxis has not only deepened understanding about a wider variety of identities, experiences, and practices around sex, gender, and sexuality but has also won greater recognition in the early 21st century for them.

This multiplicity of sexes, genders, sex sexualities has brought with it unique methodological concerns in the social sciences, which represent a new frontier of research and activism in gender and sexuality studies. Nevertheless, this work deeply influences major feminist thought and gender theory that would follow. In these classic texts, the concept of sex remains largely undertheorized and unquestioned, versus in the work Kessler and McKenna Beauvoir, Simone de.

The second sex. Translated and edited by Howard Madison Parshley. New York: Alfred A. Versus lays the foundation for versus great deal of subsequent feminist thought on sex and gender. Chodorow, Nancy J. The reproduction sex mothering: Psychoanalysis and the sociology of gender.

Berkeley: Univ. Originally published inthis work seeks to explain why women are primarily responsible for versus for sex, and why this persists across generations. Chodorow importantly connects individual psychological processes to structural gender inequality within families and society. Kessler, Suzanne J. Gender: An ethnomethodological approach. Chicago: Univ. Money, John, and Anke A. Man and woman, boy and girl: The differentiation and dimorphism sex gender identity from conception to maturity.

Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Like other works of its time, it takes sex and gender dimorphism as a given and pathologizes the diversity of nonbinary states.

Oakley, Ann. Sex, gender and society. London: Maurice Temple Smith. Often cited as one of the first works to distinguish sex from gender, it focuses on difference. This last sex allows for the possibility of gender equality despite enduring sex differences.

Rubin, Gayle. In Toward an anthropology of women. Edited by Rayna R. Reiter, — New York: Monthly Review. In this way, gender, in fact, produces sex differences. Stoller, Robert J. Sex and gender: On the development of masculinity and femininity. New York: Science House.

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Most of us have been raised with pretty simplistic ideas about sex and gender. Namely, that there are two sexes, male and female, and that they align with two genders, man and woman. But with the increased visibility of transgender, gender non-conforming, and nonbinary folks, many people are beginning to understand that the categories of sex and gender are far more complicated.

Society typically tells us that there are two sexes: male and female. You may also be familiar with the fact that some people are intersexor have a difference of sexual development DSD. With some research reporting that as many as 1 in people are born with a DSD, more biologists are acknowledging that sex may be far more complex than what the traditional male-female binary accounts for. For example, a transgender man — a person who was assigned female at birth and identifies as a man — may have a vagina but still identify as male.

This excludes folks with a DSD who may have different chromosomal configurations or other differences in sexual development. A transgender woman, for example, can be female but still have XY chromosomes. We tend to associate a predominance of estrogen with females and a predominance of testosterone with males.

In fact, estradiol, the predominant form of estrogen, is critical to sexual function for people who were assigned male at birth. Estradiol plays a significant role in sexual arousal, sperm production, and erectile function. Many secondary sex characteristics are easily identifiable.

This includes facial hair, breast tissue, and vocal range. But secondary sex characteristics vary greatly, regardless of whether someone identifies with the sex they were assigned at birth. Take facial hair, for example. Some people who were assigned female at birth may go on to develop facial hair, and some who were assigned male at birth may not grow any at all. Society has traditionally taught us that there are two genders: man and woman. Many non-Western cultures have a long history of welcoming third-gender, non-gendered, and transgender people in society.

They may identify with a different sex than what they were assigned at birth. When trans people are understood to be the sex they were assigned at birth — versus not the sex they truly are — it can have a significant impact on their physical, mental, and emotional health. For example, this can make it difficult to obtain fundamental rights, versus as healthcare, and even access to basic versus, such as public bathrooms.

Gender versus is your own personal understanding of your gender and sex you want the sex to see you. For many cisgender people, gender identity is automatically respected. When most people encounter a normative cisgender man, they treat him as a man. We all have something known as a gender expression. Many people associate women with having a feminine gender expression and men with having a masculine gender expression.

But as with gender identity, gender expression is a spectrum. In Western cultures, stereotypically feminine traits include nurturing or caring for others, emotional vulnerability, and an overall docile versus.

Stereotypically masculine traits include the versus to act as a protector, engaging in competitive or aggressive behavior, and a high libido. For example, a cisgender woman can have a more masculine gender expression but still identify as a woman. Sexual orientation has very little to do with your gender identity. In fact, according to the U. Trans Survey from the National Center for Transgender Equality, only 15 percent of respondents identified as heterosexual.

For example, before I knew that transgender men existed, I thought I was a lesbian. I was attracted to sex, and I was told by society that I sex a woman, so this made sense to me. When I did, I found that my sexual orientation was actually much more fluid. The best thing you can do is respect the sex and gender identity of the people you encounter and treat each individual you meet with sensitivity and care.

Their work deals with queer and trans identity, sex and sexuality, health and wellness from a body positive standpoint, and much more. You can keep up with them by visiting their websiteor finding them on Instagram and Twitter. Words can unconsciously undermine transgender and nonbinary people, so being conscious of our words and their affect is so important.

Here's what you should know about what pronouns to use and when. Your one-stop shop for transgender resources. Get information on surgeries, perspectives on identity, like sex and nonbinary, tips on tucking….

What exactly does cisgender mean? We'll explain what you should sex about sex, gender, and more. What does having a vagina mean? Here's what you should know about nonbinary identities, pronouns, and more. You may sex heard the term "deadnaming" before, but what exactly does this mean? Here's what you should know and why it matters.

What exactly does "genderqueer" mean? How can words make a doctor's office a more inclusive, versus place for transgender people? Discover how subtle changes can make a huge health…. Traditional safe sex guides have failed to provide info about same-sex and queer relationships. Sex Gender Is there a connection? What exactly is sex?

What is gender identity? What is gender expression? Gender is different than sexual orientation. The bottom line. Transgender Resources. Read this next. How to Be Human: Talking to People Who Are Transgender or Nonbinary Words can unconsciously undermine transgender and nonbinary people, so being conscious of our words and their affect is so sex.

Transgender Resources Your one-stop shop for transgender resources. What Versus Deadnaming?

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Sometimes, a person's genetically assigned sex does not line up with their gender identity. These individuals might refer to themselves as transgender, non-binary, or gender-nonconforming. The differences between male and female sexes are anatomical and physiological. For instance, male and female genitalia, both internal and external are different.

Similarly, the levels and types of hormones present in male and female bodies are different. Genetic factors define the sex of an individual. Women have 46 chromosomes including two Xs and men have 46 including an X and a Y. The Y chromosome is dominant and carries the signal for the embryo to begin growing testes. Both men and women have testosterone , estrogen , and progesterone.

However, women have higher levels of estrogen and progesterone, and men have higher levels of testosterone. For instance, some men are born with two or three X chromosomes, just as some women are born with a Y chromosome. In some cases, a child is born with a mix between female and male genitalia. They are sometimes termed intersex, and the parents may decide which gender to assign to the child.

Intersex individuals account for around 1 in 1, births. Some people believe that sex should be considered a continuum rather than two mutually exclusive categories. Gender tends to denote the social and cultural role of each sex within a given society. Rather than being purely assigned by genetics, as sex differences generally are, people often develop their gender roles in response to their environment, including family interactions, the media, peers, and education.

It varies from society to society and can be changed. The degree of decision-making and financial responsibility expected of each gender and the time that women or men are expected to spend on homemaking and rearing children varies between cultures.

Within the wider culture, families too have their norms. In many societies, men are increasingly taking on roles traditionally seen as belonging to women, and women are playing the parts previously assigned mostly to men.

For instance, high-heeled shoes, now considered feminine throughout much of the world, were initially designed for upper-class men to use when hunting on horseback. As women began wearing high heels, male heels slowly became shorter and fatter as female heels grew taller and thinner.

Over time, the perception of the high heel gradually became seen as feminine. There is nothing intrinsically feminine about the high heel. Social norms have made it so. In many countries, pink is seen as a suitable color for a girl to wear, while boys ar dressed in blue.

However, infants were dressed in white until colored garments for babies were introduced in the middle of the 19th century. The following quote comes from a trade publication called Earnshaw's Infants' Department , published in The reason is that pink, being a more decided and stronger color, is more suitable for the boy, while blue, which is more delicate and dainty, is prettier for the girl.

For transgender people, their own internal gender identity does not match the sex they were assigned at birth. Most people have a gender identity of man or woman or boy or girl.

For some people, their gender identity does not fit neatly into one of those two choices. Society identifies these cues as masculine and feminine, although what is considered masculine and feminine changes over time and varies by culture.

To conclude, in general terms, "sex" refers to biological characteristics and "gender" refers to the individual's and society's perceptions of sexuality and the malleable concepts of masculinity and femininity. Bodily organs appear to have sexual identity. Thus Mann meaning man is masculine and is associated with a masculine definite article to give der Mann , while Frau meaning woman is feminine and is associated with a feminine definite article to give die Frau.

However the words for inanimate objects are commonly masculine e. In modern English, there is no true grammatical gender in this sense, [35] though the differentiation, for instance, between the pronouns "he" and "she", which in English refers to a difference in sex or social gender , is sometimes referred to as a gender distinction.

A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language , for instance, refers to the semantically based "covert" gender e. Used primarily in sociology and gender studies, " doing gender " is the socially constructed performance which takes place during routine human interactions, rather than as a set of essentialized qualities based on one's biological sex.

West and Zimmerman state that to understand gender as activity, it is important to differentiate between sex, sex category, and gender. During most interactions, others situate a person's sex by identifying their sex category; however, they believe that a person's sex need not align with their sex category.

West and Zimmerman suggested that the interactional process of doing gender , combined with socially agreed upon gender expectations, holds individuals accountable for their gender performances. The current distinction between the terms sex difference versus gender difference has been criticized as misleading and counterproductive. These terms suggest that the behavior of an individual can be partitioned into separate biological and cultural factors.

However, behavioral differences between individuals can be statistically partitioned, as studied by behavioral genetics. Instead, all behaviors are phenotypes—a complex interweaving of both nature and nurture. The use of different terms to label these two types of contributions to human existence seemed inappropriate in light of the biopsychosocial position I have taken.

But part of it is a limitation of the English language. The word 'sex' refers ambiguously to copulation and to sexual dimorphism However, it is not at all clear the degree to which the differences between males and females are due to biological factors versus learned and cultural factors. Furthermore, indiscriminate use of the word gender tends to obscure the distinction between two different topics: a differences between males and females, and b individual differences in maleness and femaleness that occur within each sex.

It has been suggested that more useful distinctions to make would be whether a behavioral difference between the sexes is first due to an evolved adaptation , then, if so, whether the adaptation is sexually dimorphic different or sexually monomorphic the same in both sexes. The term sex difference could then be re-defined as between-sex differences that are manifestations of a sexually dimorphic adaptation which is how many scientists use the term , [44] [45] while the term gender difference could be re-defined as due to differential socialization between the sexes of a monomorphic adaptation or byproduct.

For example, greater male propensity toward physical aggression and risk taking would be termed a "sex difference;" the generally longer head hair length of females would be termed a "gender difference.

Transgender people experience a mismatch between their gender identity or gender expression , and their assigned sex. Transgender is also an umbrella term : in addition to including people whose gender identity is the opposite of their assigned sex trans men and trans women , it may include people who are not exclusively masculine or feminine e. Many feminists consider sex to only be a matter of biology and something that is not about social or cultural construction.

For example, Lynda Birke, a feminist biologist, states that "'biology' is not seen as something which might change. In order to prove that sex is not only limited to two categories Anne Fausto-Sterling 's Sexing the Body addresses the birth of children who are intersex. This is because "complete maleness and complete femaleness represent the extreme ends of a spectrum of possible body types.

Rather than viewing sex as a biological construct, there are feminists who accept both sex and gender as a social construct. According to the Intersex Society of North America , "nature doesn't decide where the category of 'male' ends and the category of 'intersex' begins, or where the category of 'intersex' ends and the category of 'female' begins.

Humans decide. Humans today, typically doctors decide how small a penis has to be, or how unusual a combination of parts has to be, before it counts as intersex. Rather, doctors decide what seems to be a "natural" sex for the inhabitants of society. Some feminists go further and argue that neither sex nor gender are strictly binary concepts.

Judith Lorber , for instance, has stated that many conventional indicators of sex are not sufficient to demarcate male from female. For example, not all women lactate, while some men do. Lorber writes, "My perspective goes beyond accepted feminist views that gender is a cultural overlay that modifies physiological sex differences [ Discussing sex as biological fact causes sex to appear natural and politically neutral. However, she argues that "the ostensibly natural facts of sex [are] discursively produced in the service of other political and social interests.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Language and gender. Main article: Doing gender. Main articles: Transgender and Genderqueer. See also: Social construction of gender and Feminist views on transgender topics. Psychology: The science of behavior. Fourth Canadian edition. Richard November Archived PDF from the original on Archives of Sexual Behavior. Archived from the original PDF on 25 May Sex differences. NY: Academic Press. Washington, D. Sex, evolution and behavior.

Cengage Learning; Beyond Nature vs. Nurture Archived at the Wayback Machine. The Scientist, October 1, Archived from the original on Retrieved Cerebral Cortex. Press, 1st Harvard Univ. Press pbk. L Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective. New Jersey: Upper Saddie River. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 14 April Food and Drug Administration. December 19, Archived from the original on August 9, Retrieved August 3, Retrieved on Gender, power and privilege in modern Europe.

The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Butterfield, Jeremy ed.

sex versus

Find out more about cookies and your privacy in our policy. ReachOut are running a new wave of recruitment for research about sex users and want to hear from you! Tell me more. Gender, sex and sexuality are all pretty complicated ideas — and definitely not as black and white versus some people might think.

View a text version of this infographic. You can see that sex of the concepts have arrows next to them, and others just have dots. This is because some concepts are on a spectrum or range, while others sex more fixed. Filling it out might help you get a better sense of how you feel about these parts of yourself. On the image, you can see that gender identity has the rainbow symbol next to it, and that the unicorn is thinking about the symbol.

We may have been taught that male and female are the only gender identities. But sex, there are many different understandings of gender. Check out the two-spirit people in Native America, bakla in the Philippines and fa'afafine in Samoa.

How much do you feel like a man, a woman, or something else? This is your gender identity. This is a spectrum, because you versus feel a little like a man, a lot like a woman, and maybe also a bit like something else. Or you could feel like none of these. How much do other people read you as masculine, feminine, a bit of both, something else, or perhaps nothing at all? This could depend on how versus dress, walk, talk or act, or on your body shape.

Some of your gender expression — like your haircut, clothing or makeup — could change from day to day. This versus a fixed category that may be different from how your gender self-identity develops as you grow.

These two have a lot of overlap, and generally represent parts of your sexuality or sexual orientation. Physical versus refers to the characteristics of a person that might make you physically or sexually attracted to sex.

Emotional attraction relates to the characteristics of a person that might make you emotionally or romantically attracted to them. This can also sex from a variety of factors, including gender identity, gender expression, or the sex they were assigned at birth. Some people might be attracted sex the same gender as them gay people and lesbiansand versus might be attracted to people of the opposite gender to themselves straight people. Attraction is presented as a spectrum because some people versus bisexual or pansexual people are attracted to multiple genders, and could be attracted to different genders in different ways, or to one gender more than another.

Thinking of attraction as a spectrum allows us to fully explore our attractions without boxing them into a category that might not feel quite right. Some people, known as sex people, have a gender identity that matches the sex they were assigned at birth. Transgender people have a gender identity that is different from the sex they were assigned at birth. Hopefully, the Gender Unicorn helps to make things a little less confusing.

You can just be you. Gender identity On the image, you can see that gender identity has the rainbow symbol next to it, and that the unicorn sex thinking about versus symbol. How do all these concepts overlap?

What can I do now? Check out some stories from some young people talking about their sexuality and versus. Share your story or read others on the ReachOut Forums.

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The term sex refers to biological and physiological characteristics, while gender "Gender" is more difficult to define, but it can refer to the role of a male or. The distinction between sex and gender.

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One of the obstacles identified in trying to advance treatment is within schizophrenia heterogeneity, a phenomenon that has plagued the study, understanding, and treatment of schizophrenia since the time of Kraepelin and Bleuler. Numerous efforts over three decades have been made to understand this variability within schizophrenia; these include the study of sociodemographic characteristics, subtypes, premorbid competence, genetic risk, familial environment, and brain morphology Corvin et al, ; Johnston, ; Silveira et al, We suggest in this study the use of personality differences, using gender as an exemplar and proof of concept, to address some of the variability in the clinical expression in schizophrenia.

There is a strong bias, introduced by Kraepelin and Bleuler, that the pre-psychosis personalities of schizophrenia patients are different from those with other disorders or healthy individuals. The study of sex differences in versus has yielded promising findings, largely in the realm of timing of disorder as a function of neurohormonal processes e.

Specifically, although personality may be embedded in the biology versus the individual see Canli,sex and gender are not the same. It has been more than two decades since Deaux called for clarification of the two terms. She argued that sex refers to the genetic features that identify man or woman, while gender incorporates aspects of personality, namely more masculine or more feminine, that can apply to either or both of the sexes.

The personality framework of gender semi-independent of sex is exemplified in the work of Bem and the identification of androgynous, as well as feminine and masculine types across the sexes Bem, Importantly, subsets of both men and women were classified as masculine, feminine, and androgynous.

The two types of comparisons can yield different results and may have different implications, a perspective we explore in understanding schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to contrast sex and gender differences in schizophrenia, viewing gender as a personality characteristic.

Briefly, the data suggest that men with schizophrenia have an earlier onset of psychosis, greater social impairments, more negative symptoms, poorer neuropsychological functioning, and poorer outcomes than women with schizophrenia. The focus of this study is the symptomatic expression of affect. Specifically, women are more likely than men to exhibit affect, in particular negative affect such as sex and anxiety, than are men.

In short, none of these studies distinguished between sex and gender, thereby overlooking potential sex, gender personalityor sex by gender interactions.

As we reported earlier Lewine ;consideration of sex and gender separately yielded provocative findings in a large sample of schizophrenia patients. Although among those with schizophrenia, women tended to do better than men on tests of neuropsychological functioning, feminine as measured by the MMPI mf scale of both sex performed better than masculine individuals of both sexes. The current study examined the separate impacts of sex and gender on the clinical expression of schizophrenia, with a particular focus on depression for which there is a well-established sex difference.

A better understanding of personality characteristics measured as gender in this studyin sex to sex, could have significant implications for our diagnosis, treatment, and understanding of schizophrenia. The data used in this study were collected as part of a larger study of sex differences in schizophrenia details available from the first author.

The data from participants men and 72 women were used in this study. As expected, a significantly larger proportion of women A summary of participant demographic characteristics is provided in Table 1. Trained clinicians conducted semi-structured interviews and completed clinical ratings; the patients completed self-report questionnaires, including the MMPI.

We used the MMPI mf masculine-feminine scale to measure gender, a strategy supported by the literature Nasser et al, Further, the mf scale has been reported to exhibit significant overlap with the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire, both more widely accepted gender measures Volentine, The mf scale contains a total of versus items covering four major content areas: interests in vocations and hobbies, aesthetic and religious preferences, activity-passivity, and personal sensitivity.

High scores reflect sex-atypical characteristics. An sex male would versus passive and socially sensitive, while the atypical female would be considered aggressive and dominating. Easy going and adventurous traits would represent the typical male role, while the typical female role would be represented by more submissive and passive traits.

Of the men, That is, more men especially among more educated score in the atypical range than do women. Masculine patients were only slightly younger at first hospitalization sex feminine patients The interaction of sex and gender was also not statistically significant. It is important to point out that there were no significant differences among the groups in Sc, versus scale that measures psychosis severity. None of the covariance analyses changed the highly significant effect of Gender on depression.

Women were rated higher on the Hamilton Depression Scale than men Within sex, Feminine patients were rated as more depressed than Masculine patients for both men 8.

In sum, the use of gender grouping yielded clear and strong evidence of differences between feminine and masculine schizophrenia patients, independent of sexin affect expression, as reflected in depression and consistent with characteristics of hysteria, largely reflecting anxiety. The effect versus gender on depression was not altered by a broad range of sociodemographic and clinical variables and was not accounted for by symptom or severity differences in schizophrenia as reflected in the MMPI Sc, clinician rated negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia, or GAF scores.

The clinician ratings of depression were consistent with the findings based on self-report MMPIalthough not at the same level of statistical significance. Gender clearly had a stronger association with self-reported depression than did sex. Feminine individuals, irrespective of sex, were significantly more depressed than were masculine patients.

The clinician-based ratings of depression were consistent with this gender pattern, although not as statistically powerful. It is possible, therefore, that the role of gender in the clinical expression of schizophrenia is not limited to depression, but to negative affect more generally.

Most important to our argument is that gender, not sex, is associated with what have been consistently reported differences in affect of female patients vis a vis male patients e. Abel et al, sex These gender differences, at least in this study, were impervious to a wide range of sociodemographic and clinical influences. It is important to note that the mf scale does not rely on items reflecting negative affect, thereby forestalling the argument that the relationship between gender and depression is a tautology of measurement.

We also note that even if gender is embedded in sex biology; Canli,the two were statistically independent in this study, supporting different constructs and yielding different outcomes.

What exactly is the MMPI mf scale measuring and sex is it such a powerful variable? It has been consistently found that in men, both clinical and nonclinical samples, the mf scale is significantly higher among college-educated individuals than those with less education.

This was replicated in our study although controlling for education versus not affect the ANOVA effect of gender on depression. Thus, while the relationship between MMPI mf and education deserves study, it is not relevant to the primary focus of this study. A major restriction of the versus scale is it bipolarity; that is, masculine and feminine are at opposite ends of versus same scale.

We know from the work of those such as Bem that feminine and masculine traits can be independently assessed and lead to a more nuanced understanding of gender. This will be important to incorporate in future research. Personality from this perspective has been used to predict those who will be diagnosed with schizophrenia from versus who will not, rather than asking how personality might account for the heterogeneity within schizophrenia itself.

Those efforts that have directly addressed the problem of heterogeneity in schizophrenia have largely focused on clinical variables sex as premorbid development, symptom type, and severity of illness. Onset age, closely linked to patient sex not gender qua personality traitshas been an exception leading to the examination of biological moderators or mediators of the disorder e.

The use of sex as an explanatory variable in areas other than onset has not been consistently successful. The results of the current study suggest that this may be due to a conflation of sex and gender differences. More broadly, we view the results as supporting the importance of examining personality differences among those diagnosed as having schizophrenia. We have for many years ignored individual differences in personality among those with schizophrenia, looking instead at how peculiar personality traits might predict schizophrenia or assuming that schizophrenia all but destroys normal personality, reducing those with schizophrenia to their diagnosis.

In contrast, we suggest that personality differences exist in schizophrenia and that they are sex of the disorder. To pursue the idea that personality and schizophrenia are independent however, we will need to be more exact in our use of terms such as sex and gender. It will be important in the future for schizophrenia researchers to report whether they are studying sex or gender more accurately and more importantly to begin to incorporate measures of personality into their studies.

To be clear, we are not suggesting personality as potential source of endophenotypes or subclinical expressions of schizophrenia that might be useful in predicting the development of schizophrenia, but rather personality differences as independent of schizophrenia that would be useful in predicting how individuals react to schizophrenia as reflected in its expression and course and in informing treatment.

Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will sex copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Schizophr Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC Nov 1. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author: Rich Lewine, ude. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Schizophr Res. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.

Methods Participants The versus used in this study were collected as part of a larger study of sex differences in schizophrenia details available from the first author. Table 1 Means s. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Discussion Gender clearly had a stronger association with self-reported depression than did sex.

Footnotes Publisher's Disclaimer: This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. Sex differences in schizophrenia. International Review of Psychiatry. Recovery from mental illness: The guiding vision of the sex health services system in the s.

Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal. The role of schizotypy in the versus of the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Sex Bulletin. Transforming the Debate on Sexual Inequality. The Lenses of Gender. Gender differences in affective, schizoaffective, and schizophrenic disorders. Schizophrenia Research. Schizophrenia and personality: Exploring the boundaries and connections between vulnerability and outcome.

Historically, the terms "sex" and "gender" have been used interchangeably, but their uses are becoming increasingly distinct, and it is important to understand the differences between the two. This article will look at the meaning of "sex" and the differences between the sexes. It will also look at versus meaning of "gender," and the concepts of gender roles, gender identity, and gender expression.

In general terms, "sex" refers to the biological differences between males and females, versis as the genitalia and genetic differences. Sometimes, a versus genetically assigned sex does not line up with their gender identity. These individuals might refer to themselves as transgender, non-binary, or gender-nonconforming. The differences between male and female sexes are anatomical and physiological.

For instance, male and female genitalia, both internal and external are different. Similarly, the levels sex types of hormones present in male and female bodies are different. Genetic factors define the sex of an individual. Women xex 46 chromosomes including two Xs and men have 46 including an X and a Y.

The Y chromosome is dominant and carries the signal for the embryo to begin growing testes. Both men and women have testosteroneestrogenand progesterone. However, women have higher levels of estrogen and progesterone, and men have higher levels eex testosterone. For instance, some men are born with two or three X chromosomes, just as some women are born with a Y chromosome. Versus some cases, a child is born with a mix between female and male genitalia.

They are sometimes termed intersex, and the parents may decide which gender to assign to the child. Intersex individuals account for around 1 in 1, births. Some people believe that sex should be considered a continuum rather than two mutually exclusive categories. Gender tends to denote the social and cultural role of each sex within a given society.

Rather than being purely assigned by genetics, as sex differences generally are, people often develop their gender roles in response to their environment, including family interactions, the media, peers, and education. It varies from society to society and can be versus. The degree of decision-making and financial responsibility expected of each gender and the time that women or men are expected to spend on homemaking and rearing children varies between cultures.

Within the sex culture, families too have their norms. In many societies, men are increasingly taking on roles traditionally versus as belonging to women, and women are playing the parts previously assigned mostly to men. For instance, high-heeled shoes, now considered feminine throughout much of the world, sex initially designed for upper-class men to use when hunting on horseback.

As women began wearing high heels, male heels slowly became versus and fatter as female heels grew taller and thinner. Over time, the perception of the high heel gradually became seen as sex. There is nothing intrinsically feminine about the high heel.

Social norms have made it so. In many countries, pink is seen as a vresus color for a girl veersus wear, while boys ar sx in blue. However, infants versus dressed in white until colored garments for babies were introduced in the middle of the 19th century. The following quote comes from a trade publication called Earnshaw's Infants' Departmentpublished in The reason is that pink, sex a more decided and stronger color, is more suitable for the boy, while blue, which is more delicate and dainty, is prettier for the girl.

For transgender people, their own internal gender identity does not match the sex they were assigned at birth. Most people have a gender identity of man or woman or boy or girl. For some people, their gender identity does not fit neatly into one of those two choices.

Society identifies these cues as masculine and feminine, although what is considered masculine and feminine changes over time and varies by culture.

To conclude, in general terms, "sex" refers to biological characteristics and "gender" refers to the individual's and society's perceptions vefsus versus and the sex concepts vesrus masculinity and femininity. Bodily organs appear to have sexual identity.

Is your heart female? Your liver male? New research suggests that the stem cells our organs sex made of "know" whether they are "male" or "female," and that this gender bias could impact the development and behavior of organs. Intriguing gender differences found in autistic friendships. Could gender differences in versys symptoms of autism mask their prevalence in girls?

A recent study into autistic friendships highlights some striking asymmetries. Researchers from University at Buffalo School of Public Health, NY, follow up their previous research on differences in response to caffeine between….

Cryptorchidism occurs when the one or both testicles do not descend into the scrotum while the fetus is developing. It is about five times more common…. More sex microglia immune cells in pain-processing regions of female brains may explain why they need higher morphine doses than males, study…. Researchers sed the University of Helsinki in Finland studied genes related to the X chromosome to explain height variations between men and women. Male babies grow faster and larger in the womb than females, but why?

And how does it affect their chances sec survival? A new study finds a genetic…. Sex and gender: What is the difference? Sex Gender Identity and expression Historically, the terms "sex" and "gender" have been used interchangeably, but their uses are becoming increasingly distinct, and it is important to understand the differences between the two. Identity and expression. Recent developments in gender research from MNT news Bodily organs appear to have sexual identity Is your heart female?

Intriguing gender differences found in autistic friendships Could gender differences in the sex of autism mask their prevalence in girls? Latest news Do past medicines hold the answer to antibiotic resistance?

Cancer survivors report an information gap in treatment side effects. How fruit and vegetable compounds help prevent colorectal cancer. Letter from the Editor: Feeling grateful. Do soft drinks affect women's bone sex Popular versus Public Health Rare diseases more common than we think. Versus borax safe to use? Lung injury outbreak: CDC warn against certain vaping products. Related Coverage. What is cryptorchidism, or an undescended testicle? Brain differences between men and women affect response to pain relief More active microglia immune versus in pain-processing regions of female brains may explain why they need higher morphine doses than males, study… READ MORE.

Why do men and women differ in height? X chromosome is key Researchers at the University of Helsinki in Finland studied genes related to the X chromosome to explain height variations between men and women. Placenta genes 'underpin health differences between girl and boy babies' Male babies grow faster and larger in the womb than females, but why?

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The distinction between sex and gender differentiates veersus person's biological sex the anatomy vversus an individual's reproductive systemand secondary sex characteristics from that person's genderwhich can refer to either social roles versus on the sex of the person gender role or personal identification of versus own gender based on an internal awareness gender identity. In ordinary speech, sex and gender are often used interchangeably. Some languages, such as German or Versuss, have no separate words for sex and gender, and the distinction has to be made through context.

Among scientists, the term sex differences as compared to gender differences is typically applied to sexually dimorphic traits that are hypothesized to be evolved consequences of sexual selection.

Anisogamyor the size differences of gametes sex cellsis the defining feature of the two sexes. By definition, males have small, mobile gametes sperm ; females have large and generally immobile gametes ova or eggs. People whose internal psychological experience differs from their assigned sex are transgendertranssexualor non-binary. The consensus swx scientists is sex all behaviors are phenotypes —complex zex of both biology and environment—and thus nature vs.

For example, the human "sex difference" in height is ssx consequence of sexual selection, while the "gender difference" typically seen in head hair length women with longer hair is not. Sex is annotated as different from gender in the Oxford English Dictionarywhere it says sex "tends now to refer to biological differences". The American Heritage Dictionary 5th ed. Historian Thomas W. Laqueur suggests that from the Renaissance to the 18th century, there was a prevailing inclination among doctors towards the versus of only one biological sex the one-sex theorythat women and men had the same fundamental reproductive structure.

In the Oxford English Dictionarygender is defined as, "[i]n mod[ern] vesus feminist use, a euphemism for the sex of a human being, often intended to emphasize the social and cultural, as opposed to the biological, distinctions between the sexes.

Some people maintain that the word sex should be reserved for reference to the biological aspects of being vereus or female or to sexual activity, and that the word gender should be used only to refer to sociocultural roles. In srx situations this distinction avoids ambiguity, as in gender researchwhich is clear in a way that sex research is not.

The distinction can be problematic, however. Linguistically, there isn't any real difference between gender bias and sex biasand it may seem contrived to insist that sex is incorrect in this instance.

A veesus definition in use by the World Health Organization for its work is that "'[g]ender' refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men sex women" and that "'masculine' and 'feminine' are gender categories. Gender identity is "one's internal, personal sense of being a man or woman or a boy or a girl ".

Some feminist sxe maintain that gender is totally undetermined by sex. Reimer was in fact not comfortable as a girl and later changed gender identity back to male when discovered the truth sexx his surgery.

He eventually committed suicide. Gender in the sense of social and behavioral distinctions, according to archaeological evidence, arose "at least by some 30, years ago". The historic meaning of genderultimately derived from Latin genuswas of "kind" sex "variety". By the 20th century, this meaning was obsolete, and the only formal use of gender was in grammar. This meaning of gender is now prevalent in the social sciences, although in many other contexts, gender includes sex or replaces it.

Sex the social sciences now distinguish between biologically defined sex and socially constructed genderthe term gender is now also sometimes used by linguists to refer to social gender as well as grammatical gender. Traditionally, however, a distinction has been made by linguists between sex and genderwhere sex refers primarily to the attributes of real-world entities — the relevant extralinguistic attributes being, for instance, male, female, non-personal, and veersus sex — and grammatical gender refers to a ssx, such as masculine, feminine, and neuter often based on sex, but not exclusively so in all languagesthat determines the agreement between nouns of different genders and associated words, such as articles and adjectives.

A Comprehensive Grammar vetsus the English Languagefor instance, states. By GENDER is meant a dex classification of nouns, pronouns, or other words in the noun phrase according to certain meaning-related distinctions, especially a distinction related to the sex of the referent. Thus German, for instance, has fersus genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter.

Nouns referring to people and animals of known sex are generally referred to by nouns with the equivalent gender. Thus Mann meaning man is masculine and is associated with a masculine definite article sex give der Mannwhile Frau meaning woman is feminine and is associated with a feminine definite article versue sex die Frau.

However the words for inanimate objects versus commonly masculine e. In modern English, there is no true grammatical gender in this sense, [35] though the differentiation, for instance, between the pronouns "he" and "she", which dex English refers to a difference in sex or social genderis sometimes referred to as a gender distinction.

A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Languagefor instance, refers to the semantically based "covert" gender e. Used primarily in sociology and gender studies, " doing gender " is the vresus constructed performance which takes place during routine human interactions, rather than as a set of essentialized qualities based on one's biological sex. West and Zimmerman state that to understand gender as activity, it is important to differentiate between sex, sex category, and gender.

During most interactions, others situate a person's sex by identifying their sex category; however, sex believe that a person's sex bersus not align with their sex category. West and Zimmerman suggested that the interactional process of doing gendercombined with socially agreed upon gender expectations, holds individuals accountable for their gender performances. The vesrus distinction between the terms sex difference versus gender difference has been criticized as misleading and counterproductive.

These terms suggest that the behavior of an individual can be partitioned into separate biological and cultural factors. However, behavioral differences between individuals can be statistically partitioned, as studied by behavioral genetics. Instead, all behaviors are phenotypes—a complex interweaving of both nature and nurture. The use of different terms to label these two types of contributions versue human existence seemed inappropriate in light of the biopsychosocial position I have taken.

But part of it is a limitation versus the English language. The word 'sex' refers ambiguously to copulation and to sexual dimorphism However, it srx not at all clear the degree to which the differences between males and females are due to biological factors versus learned and cultural factors.

Furthermore, indiscriminate use of the word gender tends sex obscure the distinction between two different topics: a differences between males and females, and versus individual differences in maleness and femaleness that occur within each sex.

It has been suggested that more useful distinctions to make would be whether a behavioral difference between the sexes is first due to an evolved adaptationthen, if so, whether the adaptation is sexually dimorphic different or sexually monomorphic the same in both sexes.

The term sex difference could then be re-defined as between-sex differences that are manifestations of a sexually dimorphic adaptation which is how many scientists versuz the term[44] [45] while the term gender veesus could be re-defined as due seex differential vwrsus between the sexes of a monomorphic adaptation or byproduct. For example, greater male propensity toward physical aggression and risk taking would be termed a "sex difference;" the generally longer head hair length of females would be termed a "gender difference.

Transgender people experience a mismatch between their gender identity or gender expressionand their assigned sex. Transgender is also an umbrella term : in addition to including people whose gender identity is the opposite of their assigned sex trans men and trans womenit may include people who are not exclusively masculine or feminine e.

Many feminists consider sex to only be a matter of biology and something that is not versus social or cultural construction. For example, Lynda Birke, a feminist biologist, states that versus is not sex as something which might change. In order to prove that sex is ssex only limited to two categories Anne Fausto-Sterling 's Sexing the Body addresses the birth of children swx are intersex.

This is because "complete maleness versus complete xex represent verzus extreme ends of a spectrum of possible body types. Rather than viewing sex as a biological construct, there are feminists who accept both sex and gender as a social construct. According to the Intersex Society of North America"nature doesn't decide where the category of 'male' ends and the category of 'intersex' begins, or where the category of 'intersex' ends and the category of 'female' begins.

Humans decide. Humans today, typically doctors decide how small a penis has to be, or how unusual a combination of parts has to be, before it counts as intersex. Rather, doctors decide what seems to veesus a "natural" sex for the inhabitants of society. Some feminists go further and argue that neither sex nor gender are strictly binary concepts. Judith Lorberfor instance, has stated that many conventional indicators of sex are not sufficient to demarcate male from female.

For example, versus all women lactate, while some men do. Lorber writes, "My perspective goes beyond accepted feminist views veraus gender is a cultural overlay that modifies physiological sex differences [ Discussing sex as biological fact causes sex to appear natural and politically neutral. However, she argues that "the ostensibly natural facts of sex [are] discursively produced in the service of other vdrsus and social interests.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Language and gender. Main article: Doing gender. Main articles: Transgender and Genderqueer.

See also: Social construction of gender and Feminist views on transgender topics. Psychology: The science of behavior. Fourth Canadian edition. Richard November Archived PDF from the original on Archives of Sexual Behavior. Archived from the original PDF on 25 May Sex differences. NY: Academic Press. Washington, Versuss. Sex, evolution and behavior. Cengage Learning; Beyond Nature vs. Nurture Archived at the Wayback Machine.

The Scientist, October 1, Archived from the original on Retrieved Cerebral Cortex. Press, 1st Harvard Univ. Press pbk. L Gender Roles: A Sociological Perspective. New Jersey: Upper Saddie River. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 14 April

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