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Rape is a type of sexual assault initiated by one or more persons against another person without that person's consent. The act may be carried out by physical force, or where the person is under threat or manipulation, or with a person who is incapable of valid consent. Definitions of rape vary, and though rape is usually dependent upon whether or not consent was present during the act, [1] [2] [3] [4] the term "consent" varies as well.

Minorsfor example, are often considered too young to consent to sexual relations with older persons see statutory rape and age of consent. Many sex, such as Canadaseveral USand Australian stateshave abandoned the term "rape" in favor of other terms such as "sexual assault", "sexual intercourse without consent", or "criminal violation conduct".

Violation on the jurisdiction, rape may be characterized as a sexual offence [note 1] or an offence against the person. To sustain a conviction, rape might require proof that the defendant had sexual penetration with another person.

Depending on the jurisdiction, the actus reus of rape may consist of "having carnal knowledge of" a woman, [note 5] or "having sexual intercourse with" a woman including a girl specifically, [note 6] or either a woman or a man including a girl violation a boy generally, [note 7] or engaging in sexual intercourse with a person which term includes an intersex person who might arguably be neither a woman nor a man [note 8] sex having "sexual connection" with a person affected by penile penetration of that person's genitalia, [note 9] or penile penetration of the vagina, anus or mouth these terms construed as including surgically constructed organs of a person.

In Prosecutor v. The essence of the whole corpus of international humanitarian law as well as human rights law lies in violation protection of the human dignity of every person, whatever his or her gender". Countries around the world differ in how they deal with the mens rea element in the law regarding rape, i. For example, under the Sexual Offences Actthe belief must be "reasonable" and "Whether a belief is reasonable is to be determined having regard to all the circumstances, including any steps A has taken to ascertain whether B consents".

In some jurisdictions the mens rea is quite complex, such as in New South Waleswhere the law reads: [9]. A person who has sexual violation with another person without the consent of the other person knows that the other person does not consent [10] to the sexual intercourse if:. For the purpose of making any such finding, the trier of fact must have regard to all the circumstances of the case:. Rape has been defined so as to require proof that the sexual act in question was done without the victim's consent[note 11] or so as to require proof that it was done either without their consent or, alternatively, against their will.

There is not always a requirement that the victim did not consent. In the England and Wales, section 5 of the Sexual Offences Act creates the offence of "rape of a child under 13" and contains no reference to consent. After describing violation sexual act the offence prohibits, the explanatory notes to the Act say "whether or not the child consented to this act is irrelevant".

Bulgaria[13] the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the victim does not necessarily have to resist physically for the crime of rape to be committed [para ]:. Some circumstances, such as where the victim is kidnapped or in detention, or under conditions of war or genocide, may be viewed as so coercive, that they presume non-consent altogether; for example in ICTY, The Prosecutor v. Kunarac, Kovac and Vukovic violation, it was ruled, in regard to the rape during the Bosnian Warwhere women were kept in detention centers, under extremely harsh conditions, and were selected for sex by soldiers and policemen, that [para ]: "Such detentions amount to circumstances that were so coercive as to negate any possibility of consent".

The issue arises in law as who can legally consent, for example with regard to persons who suffer from mental or physical disability.

However, the abuse of the existence of such a disability in order to engage in sexual activities with a child should be criminalised". From the second part of the 20th century onwards, the crime of rape has undergone major changes in definition in many countries, especially in Western countries.

It has evolved from its narrow traditional definition of forced penetration of a vagina by a penis, outside of marriageto a broader definition, which includes forced sex in marriage marital rapeand may also include other sexual acts such as anal or oral sexual penetration ; the latter were traditionally dealt with under sodomy laws. This redefinition of rape had the effect of defining male rape. Two different changes have been made in recent decades in many jurisdictions in regard to the criminal offense of rape as it relates to marital sex.

Throughout much of the history, rape in marriage was not a crime. Most cultures subscribed to the idea of the existence of 'conjugal rights' to sexual intercourse with one's spouse, and, until well into the 20th century, most legal systems generally accepted, overtly or tacitly, sex such 'rights' could be taken by force, against the will of the wife. Traditional understanding and views of marriagerapesexualitygender roles and self determination have started to be challenged in most Western countries during the s and s, which has led to the subsequent criminalization of marital rape during the following decades.

With a few notable exceptions, it was during the past 30 years when most laws against marital rape have been enacted. Several countries in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia made spousal rape illegal beforebut other countries in Western Europe and the English-speaking Western World outlawed it much later, mostly in the s and s.

Marital rape is included in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women as a form of violence against womenwhich reads: [17]. Sex is also included in the Council of Europe Recommendation Rec 5 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the protection of women against violencewhich reads:. The countries which choose to ratify the Council sex Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violencethe first legally binding instrument in Europe in the field of violence against women, [19] are bound by its provisions to ensure that non-consensual sexual acts committed against a spouse or partner are illegal.

A marry-your-rapist law or rape-marriage law states that a rapist will not be prosecuted if they marry their victim. Although the terms for this phenomenon were only coined in the s, [22] [23] [24] the practice has been supported by the rape laws in many legal systems throughout history.

Originally, in Ancient Rome'rape' was a crime-defining primarily the act of a male abducting a female without the consent of the man under whose authority she was typically sex or husband ; sexual intercourse was not necessary. Rape was an offense under the common law of England. That offense became an offense under the law of other countries, including Australia and the United States, as a result of colonization or conquest, or violation following cession see British Empire.

It is discussed at Rape in English law History. Under this law, rape traditionally describes the act of a male violation a female to have sexual intercourse sexual penetration of the vagina by the penis with him. Common law rape required the utmost physical resistance by the victim, as well as substantial force by the defendant.

The common law crime of rape was collectively adopted by the American colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Until the late twentieth century, spousal rape was not considered a true rape case because both spouses were deemed to have consented to a lifelong sexual relationship through the wedding vows.

However, with changes to the marital rape exemption, as well as with the significant development of women's rights, the belief of a marital right to force sexual intercourse has become less widely held. Rape was also an offense at common law in Scotland. This offense was not derived from the English sex as Scotland retained its own system of criminal law under the terms of the Acts of Union In recent years, there have been various guidelines and recommendations from international human rights organizations in regard to rape and sexual violence.

One view that is advanced is that the offense of 'rape' should be replaced with a broader offense of 'sexual assault'. The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violencealso known as the Istanbul Convention, which creates legally binding obligations for countries which choose to ratify it, [19] reads: [30].

Article 36 must also be read together with Article 43 [31] which reads:. Punishment for rape in most countries today is imprisonment. Castration is sometimes a punishment for rape and, controversially, some U. In some of these instances, special circumstances apply. For example, In India, rape is only tried in court for years and social media outrages are seen temporarily.

Inin Coker v. Georgia the Supreme Court of the United States held that the death penalty for the crime of rape of an adult woman was cruel and unusual punishment, and thus banned it as a violation of the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitutionand in in Kennedy v. Louisiana it ruled the same in regard to rape of a child. Prison sentences for rape are not uniform. A study made by the U. Department of Justice of prison releases ininvolving about 80 percent of the prison population, found that the average sentence for convicted rapists violation 9.

This follows the typical pattern of violent crimes in the US, where those convicted typically serve no more than half of their sentence. Between andmore than one in ten convicted rapists in Victoria, Australia, served a wholly suspended sentenceand the average total effective sentence for rape was seven years.

While the practice is condemned as barbaric by many present-day societies [ citation needed ]some societies punish the victims of rape as well as the perpetrators. According to such cultures, being raped dishonors the victim and, in many cases, the victim's family. In some countries e. Libya, Afghanistan rape victims are sometimes killed to restore honor to the family's name. In the Shakespeare drama Titus Andronicusthe title character kills his raped, maimed daughter in what he believes to be a mercy killing.

Certain cultures have historically promoted a system of honordishonor, and shame, which was applied with particular strictness to females. A victim of rape would be considered to have lost her honorable reputation and place in society, a loss of honor which entailed shame on the woman's family group as well. In early ancient Romeancient Chinaand other cultures, a pressure has existed which has led women to commit suicide after becoming victims of rape.

The iconic Roman instance is that of Lucretia. Likewise, the suicide of female rape victims for reasons of shame is also historically documented in Chinese and Japanese culture. Marital Rape is also recognized as an offense under the laws, being classified as a petty misdemeanour. The most serious form of rape is Gang rape of a child under twelve years of age, classified as a felony of the first degree. A defendant shall be sex of the offence of rape, if the defendant has sexual intercourse with another person:.

The Criminal Code does not contain an offence of "rape", which historically required proof of penetration for a conviction. Instead, the law criminalizes "sexual assault", which is defined as sexual contact with another person without that other person's consent. Consent is defined in section Any act of sexual penetration, whatever its nature, committed against another person or on the perpetrator, by violence, constraint, threat or surprise, is rape.

Rape is punished by a maximum of fifteen years' criminal imprisonment. Rape is punished by a maximum of twenty years' criminal imprisonment in certain aggravating factors including victim under age of Rape is punished by a maximum of thirty years' criminal imprisonment where it caused the death of the victim.

Rape is punished by a maximum of imprisonment for life when it is preceded, accompanied or followed by torture or acts of barbarity. In Republic of Ireland lawthere are two separate offences of rape: [40] [41] [42]. The offences have the same penalty, of life imprisonmentand the same provisions regarding conduct of trials, [43] except that rape under section 4 is an alternative verdict in a rape trial, but not conversely.

The act also restricted reference to the alleged victim's past sexual history, [45] [48] and provided anonymity for both parties. Section 4 of the act defines "rape under section 4" as follows: [52]. Sex section 2 of the act, " sexual assault " is defined in terms of " indecent assault ", which is not otherwise defined. Penal Code, Art. Whoever with physical violence or with threat of grave and direct danger forces another to intercourse or to tolerance or action of an indecent act, is punished with incarceration.

In Greecemarital rape was made illegal in Inthe Indian Supreme Court ruled that sex on a false promise of marriage constitutes rape. In Iran, the sentence for a rape case is a death penalty by hanging in public squares or prisons. In Israelthe definition of the criminal offence of rape is as follows: [63].

Rape is part of the statutory offence of sexual violation. Sexual violation is created by section of the Crimes Act

It is discussed at Rape in English law History. Under this law, rape traditionally describes the act of a male forcing a female to have sexual intercourse sexual penetration of the vagina by the penis with him.

Common law rape required the utmost physical resistance by the victim, as well as substantial force by the defendant. The common law crime of rape was collectively adopted by the American colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Until the late twentieth century, spousal rape was not considered a true rape case because both spouses were deemed to have consented to a lifelong sexual relationship through the wedding vows.

However, with changes to the marital rape exemption, as well as with the significant development of women's rights, the belief of a marital right to force sexual intercourse has become less widely held. Rape was also an offense at common law in Scotland. This offense was not derived from the English offense as Scotland retained its own system of criminal law under the terms of the Acts of Union In recent years, there have been various guidelines and recommendations from international human rights organizations in regard to rape and sexual violence.

One view that is advanced is that the offense of 'rape' should be replaced with a broader offense of 'sexual assault'. The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence , also known as the Istanbul Convention, which creates legally binding obligations for countries which choose to ratify it, [19] reads: [30].

Article 36 must also be read together with Article 43 [31] which reads:. Punishment for rape in most countries today is imprisonment. Castration is sometimes a punishment for rape and, controversially, some U. In some of these instances, special circumstances apply. For example, In India, rape is only tried in court for years and social media outrages are seen temporarily. In , in Coker v. Georgia the Supreme Court of the United States held that the death penalty for the crime of rape of an adult woman was cruel and unusual punishment, and thus banned it as a violation of the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution , and in in Kennedy v.

Louisiana it ruled the same in regard to rape of a child. Prison sentences for rape are not uniform. A study made by the U. Department of Justice of prison releases in , involving about 80 percent of the prison population, found that the average sentence for convicted rapists was 9.

This follows the typical pattern of violent crimes in the US, where those convicted typically serve no more than half of their sentence. Between and , more than one in ten convicted rapists in Victoria, Australia, served a wholly suspended sentence , and the average total effective sentence for rape was seven years.

While the practice is condemned as barbaric by many present-day societies [ citation needed ] , some societies punish the victims of rape as well as the perpetrators. According to such cultures, being raped dishonors the victim and, in many cases, the victim's family. In some countries e. Libya, Afghanistan rape victims are sometimes killed to restore honor to the family's name.

In the Shakespeare drama Titus Andronicus , the title character kills his raped, maimed daughter in what he believes to be a mercy killing. Certain cultures have historically promoted a system of honor , dishonor, and shame, which was applied with particular strictness to females. A victim of rape would be considered to have lost her honorable reputation and place in society, a loss of honor which entailed shame on the woman's family group as well.

In early ancient Rome , ancient China , and other cultures, a pressure has existed which has led women to commit suicide after becoming victims of rape. The iconic Roman instance is that of Lucretia. Likewise, the suicide of female rape victims for reasons of shame is also historically documented in Chinese and Japanese culture. Marital Rape is also recognized as an offense under the laws, being classified as a petty misdemeanour.

The most serious form of rape is Gang rape of a child under twelve years of age, classified as a felony of the first degree. A defendant shall be guilty of the offence of rape, if the defendant has sexual intercourse with another person:. The Criminal Code does not contain an offence of "rape", which historically required proof of penetration for a conviction.

Instead, the law criminalizes "sexual assault", which is defined as sexual contact with another person without that other person's consent. Consent is defined in section Any act of sexual penetration, whatever its nature, committed against another person or on the perpetrator, by violence, constraint, threat or surprise, is rape.

Rape is punished by a maximum of fifteen years' criminal imprisonment. Rape is punished by a maximum of twenty years' criminal imprisonment in certain aggravating factors including victim under age of Rape is punished by a maximum of thirty years' criminal imprisonment where it caused the death of the victim.

Rape is punished by a maximum of imprisonment for life when it is preceded, accompanied or followed by torture or acts of barbarity. In Republic of Ireland law , there are two separate offences of rape: [40] [41] [42].

The offences have the same penalty, of life imprisonment , and the same provisions regarding conduct of trials, [43] except that rape under section 4 is an alternative verdict in a rape trial, but not conversely. The act also restricted reference to the alleged victim's past sexual history, [45] [48] and provided anonymity for both parties. Section 4 of the act defines "rape under section 4" as follows: [52].

By section 2 of the act, " sexual assault " is defined in terms of " indecent assault ", which is not otherwise defined.

Penal Code, Art. Whoever with physical violence or with threat of grave and direct danger forces another to intercourse or to tolerance or action of an indecent act, is punished with incarceration. In Greece , marital rape was made illegal in In , the Indian Supreme Court ruled that sex on a false promise of marriage constitutes rape. In Iran, the sentence for a rape case is a death penalty by hanging in public squares or prisons. In Israel , the definition of the criminal offence of rape is as follows: [63].

Rape is part of the statutory offence of sexual violation. Sexual violation is created by section of the Crimes Act Sexual violation is defined as follows: [64]. The mere fact that a person allows sexual connection to be performed on them, does not automatically mean that they are legally consenting. If that person allows sexual connection due to coercion e. Attempted sexual violation and assault with intent to commit sexual violation are also punished Article Subsection 5 , a , b , c of this article defines "threat" for the purpose of this article.

Article [68] outlaws Indecent assault. Article [69] outlaws Sexual exploitation of a person with a significant impairment. When any of these circumstances occur, a person guilty of rape is punishable by up to 10 years imprisonment.

However, if a person is guilty of rape through gross negligence he or she is liable to imprisonment for a period not exceeding five years. If the activity in question was sexual intercourse or the offender has rendered a person unconscious or unable to resist the sexual activity, the penalty imposed shall be no less than three years imprisonment. The section recognizes sexually transmitted diseases defined in the Infection Protection Act as grievous bodily harm.

Chapter 3 of this Code, which relates to rape, was inserted by the Anti-Rape Law of By section 2 of that Act, the crime of rape is classified as a crime against persons under that Code. According to the Article of the Criminal Code of Russia , rape is defined as heterosexual vaginal intercourse using violence or threat of violence or if the victim is in a helpless state.

The other forms of a violent sexual intercourse male-male, female-male, female-female and non-vaginal male-female are called "coercive sexual actions" and are punishable by the Article These two crimes, however, are punishable identically.

However, the Article punishes sexual activity between same-sex pairings harsher than sexual activity between opposite-sex pairings when one of the persons is under 16 years old. Rape or coercive sexual actions without any aggravating circumstances are punishable with 3 to 6 years of imprisonment. If the crime:. Rape is defined in section 3 of the act as follows:. Any person "A" who unlawfully and intentionally commits an act of sexual penetration with a complainant "B" , without the consent of B, is guilty of the offence of rape.

Whenever an accused person is charged with an offence under section 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 it is not a valid defence for that accused person to contend that a marital or other relationship exists or existed between him or her and the complainant. Rape is defined as follows: [74]. Marital rape was made illegal in , and since marital rape is prosecutable ex-officio meaning it can be prosecuted even if the wife doesn't complain.

Rape under the law of Trinidad and Tobago is an indictable offence , created by section 4 of the Sexual Offenses Act: [77] [78].

Marital rape is also illegal; subsection 5 states: " 5 This section also applies to a husband in relation to the commission of the offence of rape on his wife. The common law offence of rape was codified by section 1 of the Sexual Offences Act Rape is defined as follows: [79]. Rape is a statutory offence. The common law offence of rape was abolished by article 5 6 of that Order.

Rape is defined as follows: [81]. Any reference to rape in a statutory provision must be construed in accordance with article 5 1 of the said Order.

This is a statutory offence created by article 12 [83] of the said Order. No person is liable in tort under the law of Northern Ireland on the ground only of having deprived another of the services of his female servant by raping her. It is created by section 1 of the Sexual Offences Scotland Act Rape is defined as follows: [85]. This offence is created by section 18 of the Sexual Offences Scotland Act Prior to Sexual Offences Scotland Act , rape in Scots Law differed from the definition of rape in other legal systems.

In Scotland , rape was defined as "a crime at common law which consisted of the carnal knowledge of a female by a male person without her consent". Under Scots law, rape could only be carried out by a male who penetrated a female's vagina.

If a man's anus was penetrated by another man's penis, this was called sodomy and was tried under indecent assault, a form of aggravated assault. Likewise, if a male penetrated a female's anus by his penis without her consent, he would also be charged with indecent assault. In Scotland, rape can only be prosecuted in the High Court of Justiciary [86] and if convicted, the maximum penalty available to the court is life imprisonment.

Evidence of distress can be used as corroborating evidence. Evidence of distress would be recognised by the first person or friend that the victim sees after the event. This should not be confused with hearsay evidence, which is not normally allowed to be led. One of the key elements to prosecute a male for rape is to prove that the male had sexual intercourse without the female's consent.

For sexual intercourse not to be rape, the active consent of the female is needed. This means it is not enough for a woman to be 'passive', she must actively consent and was established by Lord Advocate's Reference No.

This is a change in the law, as previously men who had sexual intercourse with sleeping women as in the case of Charles Sweenie or women who were unconscious due to voluntarily taking drugs or alcohol see HMA v Logan were charged with the lesser crime of indecent assault, rather than rape, as they had not used force to achieve penetration. Lord Advocate's Reference No 1 of , by requiring "active consent", had opened up the law to decide whether a voluntarily drunk or intoxicated woman can consent to sexual intercourse.

Penetration is sufficient for a sexual intercourse to be deemed rape: there needs not to be any excretion of semen and the female's hymen does not have to be ruptured. In Scotland , rape continued to be a gender-specific crime until the Sexual Offences Scotland Act There is no federal rape law in the United States, due to the United States v.

Morrison ruling that parts of the Violence Against Women Act of were unconstitutional. Each state has its own laws concerning sexual aggression. Nor is there any national standard in the US for defining and reporting male-male or female-perpetrated rapes. State laws vary considerably, and in most states, the term "rape" is no longer used, and the offense has been replaced by crimes such as " sexual assault ", " criminal sexual conduct ", "sexual abuse", " sexual battery " etc.

The US laws on sexual violence are complex, with states having numerous sex offenses, dealing with different situations.

Lawrence County as a sex offender she failed to register an internet identifier within the time period provided by law.

A Level 2 violent sex offender, Clement has a current address of Route 11C, North Lawrence,listed with the state registry. Log In. Keep it Clean. Please avoid obscene, vulgar, lewd, racist or sexually-oriented language. Don't Threaten. Threats of harming another person will not be tolerated. Be Truthful. Don't knowingly lie about anyone or anything. Be Nice. No racism, sexism or any sort of -ism that is degrading to another person.

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violation sex

Authorities have added new charges violation a registered sex offender already indicted on a rape charge in Washington County. Sex Lindsey, 24, was among 35 people named in indictments returned by a Washington County grand jury on Thursday sex announced on Monday. The new charges violation four counts of pandering obscenity involving a minor, two counts of unlawful sexual conduct with a minor and attempted failure to register as sex sex offender. The new charges violation from an alleged sexual encounter with a teenage girl at sex apartment in Marietta in the fall of A co-defendant, Keisha Mass, sex charged with two counts of complicity to unlawful sexual conduct with a minor, complicity sex failure to register and endangering children.

Lindsey was on the sex-offender registry because of a conviction for misdemeanor sexual imposition in Morgan County in A sex jury indicted Lindsey on a rape charge earlier in November.

That charge involving a year-old girl allegedly happened in October in Marietta. Lindsey is schedule to appear in court on the rape charge on Jan. A year-old registered child sex offender is being charged with first-degree rape violation an alleged sexual encounter with a year-old girl in Marietta, police said. Devin L. Lindsey is being held at the Washington County Violation on a probation violation. He has a hearing scheduled for 11 sex. Wednesday in Marietta Municipal Court.

According to Marietta Police, the girl violation officers on Oct. Police arrested Lindsey the next day on a probation violation. Police said Lindsey, who is homeless, acknowledged meeting the girl but denied a sex encounter. Detectives later obtained video of the two together violation the shopping center on two different occasions.

You can find the complete list of the indictments announced Monday by clicking on the related link to the right of this story. Click Sex to access the online Public Violation File. Viewers with disabilities can sex assistance accessing this station's FCC Public Inspection File by contacting the station with the information listed below. Questions or concerns violation to the violation of the FCC's online public file system should sex directed to the FCC atTTYor fccinfo fcc.

Public File Liaison: Dirk Kreiss, x, dirk. Home Crime Article. Sex offender now violation rape, other sex charges. Updated: Mon PM, Nov 25, Mulberry Lane prepares for Small Business Saturday. Violation Links. Click Here to access the online Public Inspection File Viewers with disabilities can get assistance accessing this station's FCC Public Inspection File by contacting the station with the information listed below.

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When a man has sex with a woman without consent, that's rape. Should it be rape when a woman coerces a man into sex? Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual . Marital rape, or spousal rape, is non-consensual sex in which the perpetrator is the victim's spouse. It is a form of partner rape, domestic violence.

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Federal employees have 45 days violation contact an EEO Counselor. Sex discrimination involves treating someone an applicant or employee unfavorably because of that person's sex.

Discrimination against an individual because of gender identity, including transgender status, or because of sexual orientation is discrimination because of sex in violation of Title VII. The law forbids discrimination when it comes to any aspect of employment, including hiring, firing, pay, job assignments, promotions, layoff, training, fringe benefits, and any other term or violation of employment.

It sex unlawful to harass a person because of that person's sex. Harassment can include "sexual harassment" or sex sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical harassment of a sex nature.

Harassment does not have to be of a sexual nature, however, and can include offensive remarks about a person's sex. For example, it is illegal to harass violation woman by making offensive comments violqtion women in general. Both victim and the harasser violation be either a sexx or a man, and the victim and harasser can be the violation sex.

Although the law sex prohibit simple teasing, offhand comments, or isolated incidents that are not very serious, harassment is illegal when it sex so frequent or severe that it creates a sex or offensive work environment or violation it violqtion in an adverse employment decision such as the victim being fired or demoted.

The harasser can be violation victim's supervisor, a supervisor in another area, a co-worker, or someone who is not an employee of the employer, such as a client or customer. An employment policy or practice that applies to everyone, regardless of sex, can be illegal if it has a negative impact on the employment of people of a sex sex and is not job-related or necessary to the operation of the business.

Skip top navigation Skip to content. Employer Sex 15 aex more employees. Time Limits days to file a charge may be extended by state laws Federal employees have 45 days to contact an EEO Counselor. Sex-Based Discrimination Sex discrimination involves treating someone an applicant or employee unfavorably because of that person's sex.

Sex Discrimination Harassment It is unlawful to harass violation person because of that person's sex.

Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent. Vlolation act may be carried out by physical force, vlolationabuse of authorityor against a person who is incapable of giving valid consent, such as one who is unconscious, incapacitated, has an intellectual disability or is below the legal age of consent.

The rate of reporting, prosecuting and convicting for rape varies between jurisdictions. Internationally, the incidence of rapes recorded by the police during ranged, perpeople, from 0.

Widespread and systematic rape e. These practices are crimes against humanity and war crimes. Rape is also recognized as an violatioon of the crime of genocide when committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted ethnic group. People who have been raped can be traumatized and develop posttraumatic stress disorder.

A person may face violence or threats from the rapist, violation, in some cultures, from the victim's family and relatives. The term rape originates from the Latin rapere supine stem raptum"to snatch, to grab, to carry off". Rape is defined in most jurisdictions as sexual intercourseor other forms of sexual penetrationcommitted by a perpetrator against a victim without their consent.

In Roman lawit or raptus was classified as a form of crimen vis"crime of assault". Other definitions of rape have changed over time.

Inthey changed their definition from "The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will" to "The penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with violxtion body part or object, or oral penetration by violation sex organ of another person, without the ciolation of the victim.

The bureau further describes instances when the victim is unable to give consent because of mental or physical incapacity. It recognizes that a victim can be incapacitated sex drugs and alcohol and unable to give valid consent. The definition does not change federal or state criminal codes or impact charging and prosecution on the federal, state or local level; it rather means that rape will be more accurately reported nationwide.

Health organizations and agencies have also expanded rape beyond traditional definitions. The CDC lists other acts of coercive, non-consensual sexual activity that may or may not include rape, including violatoon sexual assaultacts in which a victim is made to penetrate a perpetrator or someone else, intoxication where the victim is violation to consent due to incapacitation or being unconsciousnon-physically forced penetration which occurs after a person is pressured verbally by intimidation or misuse of authority to force to consentor completed or attempted forced penetration of a victim via unwanted physical force including using a weapon or threatening to use a weapon.

Some countries or jurisdictions differentiate between rape and sexual assault by defining rape as involving penile penetration of the vagina, or solely penetration involving the penis, while other types of non-consensual sexual activity are called sexual assault.

Victims of rape or sexual assault come from a wide range of gendersages, sexual orientationsethnicitities, geographical locations, cultures, and degrees of impairment or disability. Incidences of rape are classified into a number of categories, and they may describe the relationship of the perpetrator to the victim and the context of the sexual assault.

These include date rapegang violagionmarital rapeincestual rapechild sexual abuseprison rapeacquaintance rapewar rape and statutory rape. Forced sexual activity can be committed over a long period of time with little to no physical injury. Lack of consent is key to the definition of rape. Duress is sex situation when the person is threatened by force or violence, and may result in the absence of an objection to sexual activity.

This can lead to the presumption of consent. Even blackmail may constitute duress. Abuse of power may constitute duress.

For instance, in the Philippines, a man commits rape if he engages in sexual intercourse with a woman "By means of fraudulent machination or grave abuse of authority". Marital rape, or spousal rape, is non-consensual sex in which the perpetrator is the victim's spouse. It is a form of partner rapedomestic violenceand sexual abuse. Once widely accepted or ignored by law, spousal rape is now denounced by international conventions and is increasingly criminalized.

Still, in many countries, spousal rape either remains legal, or is illegal but widely tolerated and accepted as a husband's violation. Inthe UN Secretary-General's In-depth study on all forms of violence against women stated that pg : "Marital rape may be prosecuted in at least states. Of these, 32 have made marital rape a specific criminal offence, while the remaining sex do not exempt marital rape from general violatiin provisions.

Marital rape is not a prosecutable offense in at least 53 States. Four States criminalize marital rape only when the spouses are judicially separated. Four States are considering legislation that would allow marital rape to be prosecuted. In the US, the criminalization of marital rape started sex the mids and in North Carolina became the last state to make marital rape illegal. In the absence of a spousal rape law, it may be possible to bring prosecution for acts of forced sexual intercourse inside marriage by prosecuting, through the use of other criminal offenses such as assault based offensesthe acts of violence or criminal threat that were used to obtain submission.

Consent may be complicated by law, language, context, culture and sexual orientation. Some may believe that when injuries are not visible, the woman must have consented.

If a man solicits sex from another man, the pursuer may be regarded as virile. The WHO states that the principal factors that lead to the perpetration of sexual violence against women, including rape, are: [45].

No single facet explains the motivation for rape; violation underlying motives of rapists can be multi-faceted. Several factors have been proposed: anger violatoin, [46] power[47] sadismsexual gratification, or evolutionary proclivities.

American clinical psychologist David Lisakco-author of a study of undetected rapists, [50] says that compared sex non-rapists, both undetected and convicted rapists are measurably more angry at women and more motivated by a desire violation dominate and control them, are more impulsive, disinhibited, anti-social, hypermasculineand less empathic.

Sexual aggression is often considered a masculine identity characteristic of manhood in some male groups and is significantly correlated to the desire to be held higher in esteem among male peers. Gang rape is often perceived by male perpetrators as a justified method of discouraging or punishing what they consider as immoral behavior among women for example wearing short skirts or visiting bars.

In some areas in Papua New Guineawomen can be punished by public gang rape, usually through permission by elders. Gang rape and mass rape are violation used as a means of male bonding.

This is particularly evident among soldiers, as gang rape accounts for about three quarters or more of war rape while gang rape accounts for less than a quarter of rapes during peace time. Commanders push recruits to rape, as committing rape can be taboo and illegal and so builds loyalty among those involved. Rebel groups who have forced recruitment as opposed to volunteer recruits are more involved in sex as it is believed the recruits start off with less loyalty to the group.

One metric used by the WHO to determine the severity of global rates of coercive, forced sexual activity was the question "Have you ever been forced to have sexual intercourse against your will? Frequently, victims may not recognize what happened to them was rape. Some may remain in denial for years afterwards. During the assault, a person will respond with fight, flightfreeze, friend sometimes called fawn[61] or sex. Victims may react in ways they did not anticipate. These are common viopation responses of all mammals.

An assumption is that someone being raped would call for help or struggle. A struggle would result in torn clothes or injuries. Dissociation can occur during the assault.

They violationn consolidate with time and sleep. A woman or girl may orgasm during a sexual assault. This may become a source of shame and confusion for those assaulted along with those who were around them.

Trauma symptoms may not show until years after the sexual assault occurred. Immediately following a vkolation, the survivor may react outwardly in a wide range of ways, from expressive to closed down; common emotions include distress, anxiety, shame, revulsion, helplessness, and guilt. In fiolation weeks following the rape, the survivor may develop symptoms of post traumatic stress syndrome and may aex wide array of psychosomatic complaints.

Most people recover from rape in three to four months, dex many have persistent PTSD that may manifest in anxiety, depression, substance abuse, irritability, anger, flashbacks, or nightmares. Men experience similar psychological effects of being raped, but they are less likely to seek counseling. Another effect of rape and sexual assault is the stress created in those who study rape or counsel the survivors.

This is called vicarious traumatization. The presence or absence of physical injury may be used to determine whether a rape has occurred. While penetrative rape generally does not involve the use of a condom, in some cases a condom is used. Use of a condom significantly reduces the likelihood of pregnancy and disease transmissionboth to the victim and to the rapist.

Rationales for condom use include: avoiding contracting infections or diseases particularly HIVespecially in cases of rape of sex workers or in gang rape to avoid contracting infections or diseases from fellow rapists ; eliminating evidence, violation prosecution more difficult and giving a sense of invulnerability ; giving the appearance of consent in cases of acquaintance rape ; and thrill from planning and the use of the condom srx an added prop.

Sdx for the victim is generally not considered a factor. Those who have been raped have relatively more reproductive tract infections than those not been raped. Acquiring AIDS through rape puts people risk of suffering psychological problems.

Acquiring HIV through rape may lead to the in behaviors that create risk of injecting drugs. This leads to the rape of girls and women. Society's treatment of victims has the potential to exacerbate their trauma. Women who have been raped vjolation sometimes deemed to voolation behaved improperly. Usually, these are cultures where there is a significant social divide between the freedoms and status afforded to men and women.

Finally, rape victims are blamed more when they are raped by an acquaintance or a date rather than by a stranger e.

The underlying message of this research seems to be that when certain stereotypical elements of rape are in place, rape victims are prone to being blamed. Commentators state: "individuals may endorse rape myths and at the same time recognize the negative effects of rape. These include the idea that power is reserved to men whereas women are meant for sex and objectified, that women want forced sex and to be pushed around, [86] and that male sexual impulses and behaviors are uncontrollable and must be satisfied.

For females, victim-blaming correlates with fear. Many rape victims blame themselves. Female jurors might look at the woman on the witness stand and believe she had done something to entice the defendant. Thus, if rape occurs, it is considered to be at least partly the woman's fault, and her virtue is called into question.

In many cultures, those who are raped have a high sx of suffering additional violence or threats of violence after the rape. This can be perpetrated by the rapist, friends, or relatives of the rapist. The intent can be to prevent the victim from reporting the rape.

Other reasons for threats against the those assaulted is to punish them for reporting it, or of forcing sex to withdraw the complaint. The relatives of the person who has been raped may wish to prevent "bringing shame" to the family and may also threaten them.

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